The following post is published courtesy of Chandra garu, who kindly gave permission to reprint a version of his article originally posted onMay 28, 2014
Just like it has become today, there was a time in the past when being a ‘Telugu’ person was not a matter of pride at all.
In spite of the efforts of Amara Jeevi Potti Sri Ramulu, the ‘Telugu pride’ did not take shape for decades, owing to the subservient culture of the Congress Party in Andhra Pradesh and their oppressive overlords in Delhi. In dark times like that, one man rose to remind our people that they are more than just another ‘safe constituency’ for the Congress Party. He reminded us that our magnificent culture deserves a better place in history. That man was Sri Nandamuri Taraka Ramarao.
NTR reminded the Telugus of their ‘Atmagauravam’ – self-respect – which was forgotten under the misrule of the greedy Congress Party. Atma-gauravam, NTR used to say, is needed because he who doesn’t respect himself doesn’t deserve any respect from others.But unlike the racism seen in Nido Tania’sunfortunate death and the regionalism that has gripped our State for over a decade, self-respect is an inclusive concept. He who values self-respect also recognises others’ right to respect.
NTR wasn’t a just an ordinary politician. He was one of the greatest personalities in the contemporary history of Andhra Pradesh and among the greatest leaders in India. He became known as a brilliant actor, among the best in Indian history. As a true Indian, NTR lived his life with the national pledge as inspiration.
భారతదేశం నా మాతృభూమి. భారతీయులందరు నా సహోదరులు.
[India ismymotherland. All Indians are my brothers]
Popularly called ‘Anna’ (big brother) by Telugu women and men, the Patriot in NTR lived to serve his motherland and his countrymen whom he treated like siblings. Such was his greatness that when Hon. P.V. Narasimha Rao was elected the Prime Minster of the country, he refused to field a candidate to oppose his election, in spite of the political differences.
నేను నా దేశాన్ని ప్రేమించుచున్నాను.
[I love my country deeply]
Even when his life was going through a comfortable phase, NTR perceived that the political culture in the country had become vicious due to the pettiness of the people in power. In spite of being a hugely popular actor and a successful man, he entered the rough and tumble of politics to reform the culture and serve his country. Such was his dedication to the cause that he won a state-wide election thumbs down within nine months of floating a party, the TDP, something that a lot of actors have tried recently in AP and TN, but failed.
సుసంపన్నమైన, బహువిధమైన నా దేశ వారసత్వ సంపద నాకు గర్వకారణం. దీనికి అర్హత పొందడానికి సర్వదా నేను కృషి చేస్తాను.
[My rich and varied national heritage makes me proud. I will always work to be worthy of it.]
As an administrator, he was a compassionate man. He realised the true potential of his country and the State. Due to the failed policies of the previous Governments, the rich heritage of the country was put to shame and ordinary Indians were forced into the clutches of poverty. NTR, with his rallying cry of ‘Atmagauravam’ worked tirelessly to restore the rich heritage of Telugus to its rightful place.
నా తల్లిదండ్రుల్ని, ఉపాధ్యాయుల్ని, పెద్దలందరిన్ని గౌరవిస్తాను. ప్రతివారితోను మర్యాదగా నడుచుకొంటాను.
[My parents, teachers, and elders are all honored by me. Everyone will be respected by me ]
Very few people know of NTR’s humble beginnings – a life story that is a clear example of the greatness of swatantra bharata desam. NTR was born into a farmer family – the life blood of Indian economy. He was also the embodiment of an Indian family, where each member supports the bread winner for common good – he supplied milk on his bicycle to support his family as a student. But he wasn’t just a family man. He was also a brave man who dared to dream beyond the beaten path. He pursued his passion for acting while pursuing his studies. In spite of achieving the pinnacle in both acting and politics, NTR was known to be very humble and approachable. He was known to treat all the crew in the film sets with respect. Even in the prime of his career, he would stand up out of respect when a producer entered the sets.
నా దేశంపట్ల , నా ప్రజలపట్ల సేవనిరతితో ఉంటానని ప్రతిజ్ఞ చేస్తున్నాను. వారి శ్రేయోభివృధ్ధులే నా ఆనందానికి మూలం.
[I take an oath to have a service attitude towards my country and citizens. Their welfare is my happiness ]
Such was his dedication to public service that NTR was known to wake up as early as 2 AM and be ready for work by 7 AM after practising Yoga. Not many contemporary Chief Ministers can boast of this kind of commitment to their work.
When he came to power, NTR put the welfare of people ahead of any political agenda.
His massively popular “Rs.2 / KG rice” scheme saved many families from imminent starvation and the cruel jaws of poverty.
He dismantled the regressive feudal system through removal of the hereditary village officer post of Karanam, Patel and Patwari. This paved way for land reforms.
Equal right in property to the girl child and introduction of mid-day meal scheme in schools were the first of their kind and emulated later by other governments.
He introduced prohibition of alcohol.
He pioneered a common entrance test for Engineering and Medical streams by introducing EAMCET.
Telugu Ganga Project, intended to irrigate lands in Rayala Seema and supplying water to Chennai was one of his greatest achievements and his affection to Indians as a whole.
Above all lies his undying belief in his capacity to fight evil and he showed the world that dynasty and hegemony can be dismantled with perseverance. He traveled a total of above 75,000 kilo meters on his Chaitanya Radham, taking bath on roadside, food at the roadside and sleeping in the bus. He eschewed the life of an aristocrat with a single minded devotion to reform the politics in AP and achieved it.
Today, Andhra Pradesh is enjoying the pride of its place in India, even though the past decade saw a deterioration in our pride. When Congress leaders are going back to their old ways of mortgaging Telugu pride on Delhi streets, it is time to rise up once again and follow the path shown by NTR.
If a man like NTR doesn’t deserve to be called ‘Bharat Ratna’, who does? Telugu Desam Party believes that it is the right time to confer Bharat Ratna on NTR, because it will remind the Telugu people of the glorious times under NTR and TDP. It will remind the Telugu People to be proud of themselves again and fight back the humiliation being meted out to them by corrupt and manipulative forces. It will unite the Telugu people irrespective of their postal address and political affiliations.
Happy Deepavali to all our brothers and sisters around the world!
We wish you all a safe, prosperous, and happy rest of the year. May it bring good fortune to those who’ve earned it and light to those who need it (especially our siblings in Uttarandhra who are in our prayers this season).
This day especially celebrates the Return of Sri Rama to Ayodhya
The defeat of Narakasura by Satyabhama and Sri Krishna
And the marriage of Goddess Lakshmi to Lord Vishnu
With so much to celebrate all in one Festival Day–there is no better occasion to light up a diya, sparkler, and the sky itself with Fireworks.Happy Deepavali!
Vijayawada has been declared as the capital of Andhra Pradesh. A journey from north to south of India or vice versa must transit through Vijayawada. It’s a busy transit point for rail and road journeys between north, south and east, west. The city lays 270 kms from Hyderabad, 400 kms from Chennai, 630 kms from Bengaluru and 350 kms from Vishakhapatnam and is well connected to other major cities in the country.
The choice of Vijayawada as Andhra capital is natural after the separation of Telangana, a centrally located place which combined with the twin city of Guntur is the largest urban conglomeration in the new Andhra Pradesh. Eluru, Tenali, Gudiwada, Machilipatnam are other cities and towns located within a 60-km radius of Vijayawada. The government plans to create a state capital region (SCR) around Vijayawada, on the lines of the national capital region (NCR) in Delhi.
While campaigning in Andhra Pradesh, Narendra Modi promised a city better than Delhi for the state capital. Urban Development minister Venkaiah Naidu recently announced Vijayawada as the first smart city in the country under the plan to create 100 smart cities.
Vijayawada region was always central to Andhra identity. Srikakulam, currently a village located near Vijayawada, was the ancient capital of the Andhras. The region is associated with the legend of Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu who ruled before Satavahanas; there is an ancient Andhra Mahavishnu temple with a beautiful vigraham (murti) in the village (watch here).
Krishna Devaraya, the greatest king of Vijayanagar, known for his love of the Telugu language, visited this temple. Andhra Mahavishnu appeared in a dream and asked him to write “Amuktamalyada,” a literary composition on Andal, one of the 12 alwars, describing her pangs of separation from her beloved Lord Vishnu.
Amaravati, the imperial capital of the Satavahanas, is just 30 kms away from Vijayawada city. After Satavahanas, Vengi, capital of the Andhra Ikshvakus, Salankayanas, Vishnukundins, and Eastern Chalukyas for over seven centuries, lays 60 kms from the city. The announcement of Vijayawada as capital is thus a continuum of that ancient identity.
Vijayawada is on the banks of Krishna river; a temple for Kanaka Durga on Indrakeeladri hill on the river banks makes it a famous pilgrimage centre. There is also a church for Mary that attracts Christians from all over the state.
Before and after independence Vijayawada faced huge discrimination despite its potential for growth, from a biased caste-centric polity. It was not selected as capital in 1953, even though it was better qualified in infrastructure, resources and had popular opinion in its favour when Andhra region was separated from Madras state. The capital was eventually moved from Kurnool to Hyderabad in 1956.
Andhra University was first established in Vijayawada, but later moved to Vishakhapatnam in the 1920’s. Vijayawada paid the price for being on the wrong side of the socio-political dynamics. It was a hub of communist activity before and after independence. The first elected MP from Vijayawada was Harindranath Chattopadhyaya, brother of Sarojini Naidu, as an independent supported by the Communist Party of India. The city was also the logistical and command centre for the Telangana peasant struggle against the Nizam and a hideout for the cadre.
Political discrimination couldn’t stop the residents of the city from making their own efforts to improve infrastructure. Love for education prompted them to invite Loyola academy from Chennai to set up a college; they generously gave private land and funds for the institution. Over the years, Siddhartha Academy was established to cater for the needs of professional and technical education in the city. The Academy was first to setup a private engineering college in united Andhra. These efforts from private, non-profit groups made Vijayawada a major hub for education.
Agrarian surpluses in Vijayawada region moved into industry; Velagapudi Rama Krishna, an ICS officer, pioneered industry in the state with KCP sugar factory in 1941. Many entrepreneurs emerged from the region and were in the forefront of diversification of business in the state. They invested in transport, cinema, industry, media, agro-processing, finance, automobile workshops. Despite poor cooperation from governments, the region emerged as a major commercial centre on its own. It is a self-made city.
Entrepreneurs from Vijayawada region migrated to all major cities in the south and abroad, in search of opportunities. Those who migrated a few centuries ago pioneered industrialization in Tamil Nadu, particularly in the industrial city of Coimbatore. The unjustified target of Telangana separatism were mostly entrepreneurs from Vijayawada-Guntur region who migrated to Hyderabad to take advantage of numerous PSUs established by Central and state governments in the capital since the formation of the state in 1956. They had faced a similar fate in Madras when Andhra Pradesh was formed.
The Vijayawada entrepreneur is tired of this history repeating after investing and adapting to the region; he is treated as an outsider and his contribution denied or mocked. The residents of Vijayawada couldn’t take it anymore; they strongly felt the need for a capital in their region. The Telugu Desam Party coming to power after separation helped them as the region is well qualified and crucial for TDP fortunes.
Not only in socio-economic terms, Vijayawada is also the hub of Andhra culture. It is the birthplace of Kuchipudi dance [the village of the same name being very near to the city]. The city is home to many stalwarts in modern Telugu literature and music. The Krishna-Godavari delta is rich in Telugu culture and cuisine with strong nativity. From any perspective the region is natural choice for the capital.
The Andhra government has grand plans to develop the city on the lines of Singapore or some other grand city. Chandrababu Naidu’s obsession for Singapore is something mysterious; he is more obsessed with size than quality. If Narendra Modi’s promise to make the Andhra capital a better city than Delhi has to be realised, the focus should be more on the quality of life and facilities than the size of the city. He has a chance to model Vijayawada as a modern clean and green city with strong nativity.
An ugly metropolis doesn’t suit a culturally rich city like Vijayawada surrounded by fertile lands.The planned smart city needs to be really smart without disturbing sensitive ecology, water resources, and fertile lands in the region. A smart city with focus on green technologies, waste recycling, agro-industry, services, world class education and research institutes that promote native culture, cuisine and tourism would be ideal for Vijayawada region and would undoubtedly be better than any over burdened mega city. Andhra Pradesh needs dispersed development across regions that take advantage of local topography and benefit people, not over crowded cities.
A version of this article was originally published by Vijayvaani. The author of this post, Krishnarjun garu, can be reached on twitter and at his personal blog. We thank him for his kind permission to reprint this piece.
Disclaimer: This article represents the opinions of the Author, and should not be considered a reflection of the views of the Andhra Cultural Portal.
As you all know, Cyclone Hudhud slammed Northern Andhra Pradesh and neighboring Odisha over the weekend. While casualties were mercifully lower than usual, the devastation has been widespread and severe.
Visakhapatnam in particular has been hit very hard, and will take a lot of time to rebuild. The airport has been damaged, lives have been lost, fishermen and others have lost their livelihoods. Economic losses are estimated to be at least Rs. 10,000 crore.
Immediately below is information on how to donate directly to the AP state fund for cyclone relief (any readers from Odisha are welcome to provide a similar one as well). Please be mindful that many relief organizations have questionable track records, so this is likely the most reliable fund for immediate relief for those affected by (and still suffering from the effects of) the terrible storm. We recommend you verify account information directly via Chief Minister Chandrababu Naidu’s official account and the state government website.
If you have any other information regarding relief needs, etc., feel free to include in the comments (or email via “contact us”) and we will update this post as needed.
“Grohwth, grohwth, vee need grohwth, increase our grohwth, vee must have grohwth”—And what will you do with all that growth, eat it?
The fact remains that while modern infrastructure development is important and educational advancement is good, they must not be done at the expense of destroying the environment, pillaging nature, and most importantly, losing culture.
Culture should improve, culture should progress, and culture should innovate—but all should be done in a way that makes timeless values relevant in a changing modern context. Just as we have Sanatana Dharma (Timeless Dharma) and Yuga Dharma (Dharma as per the Yuga or Era), so too should core aspects of our Samskruthi be eternal while others adaptable.
Why “Debelopment” above all is not a Strategy for Success
China has made a great many strides over the past 30 years—clearly well ahead of India on the development front. But it has also paid a heavy price, not merely in the widespread decline in air quality due to coal power plants (India is not far behind here), but also in the depletion and degradation of its water sources. Indeed, so disastrous has the decline in the PRC’s environmental quality been that the Chinese themselves have been calling it“low quality growth”.
The rapid push for rapid and lop-sided urbanization and unaccountable industrialization has resulted in a slow motion catastrophe that has not only impacted the quality of the land and the quality of life, but life itself. Many pictures are too horrifying and tragic to show (particularly the human toll), but the ongoing health disaster due to cadmium rice and other such gifts of globalization should be cause for pause.
Is the massive deluge of humanity into rotting cities and under-piped settlements a humane let alone dharmic existence for its denizens? Are smart cities the solution for every citizen? Wouldn’t balanced development seek to enhance life in the village, town, and city alike rather than simply constructing gigantic megalopolises conceived as smart but ending as slum? But why take the word of an Indian on China, when a Chinese person himself speaks on the topic:
Due to increase in the “Landless and jobless”, the vibrant traditional culture of China is dying in favor of the supposed greener pastures of materialism and hedonism (India not too far behind here either). Let me clarify. Preserving rural lifestyles does not mean promoting the primitive. Villages and even smaller towns can connect to the modern world without disconnecting from the holistic and symbiotic lifestyles they frequently offer, as opposed to the current parasitic model of our vastly mushrooming urban agglomerations. But why should the word “farmer” be perceived as a four letter word? There is great dignity in the life of the kisan, for civilized life is dependent on him and his hardwork. Rather than be viewed with contemptuous eyes, the agriculturalist should be thanked for making city life possible at all.
What’s more it is industrial life and commerce that is driving not only the consumption of resources but the pollution of our natural resources, even our sacred rivers.
Living in harmony with the land is not the hallmark of the barbarian but the callsign of the civilized, for the highest form of civilization is not material but spiritual. Understanding and recognizing that all life is interconnected, and that we too have duties to Mother Earth and her other children, is essential.
It is this ahankar (false ego) mentioned previously that creates the sick desire in men to dominate others and all other life. Man does not have dominion over the Earth, how could he? Did he create it? Is his “conquest” of it so secure that a simple frown fromBhoomidevi could not overthrow him like many ants upon a hill?
No, my brothers and sisters, the human being is merely a tenant, a guest in this vast resort of Life, here to improve, and even perfect himself/herself, not through artifice and robotics, but will to restrain the senses. The earth is merely a life-estate at best, and there are restrictions on what can or cannot be done before it is passed on to the next generation, and evento its Ultimate Owner.
It is svaartha(selfishness) that ever-present evil, that root of all evil that drives man mad in the desire to conquer other people and other things, rather than conquer himself (the first and noblest form of conquest). It is for this reason Mahatma Gandhi said the world has enough for every person’s need, not every person’s greed. He even decried the Industrial model of the West, saying
Recent estimates have concluded that for the developing world to consume and live like the developed, we would need 3 and ½ Earths. In fact, “urbanisation is accompanied by unprecedented consumption of natural resources”
Despite ongoing efforts to tarnish his name and legacy, looks like on this count, Gandhiji was right after all.
It is the fundamental conceit and hubris of man to attempt to rule over the Earth as slavemaster rather than protect and safeguard it as steward.
The unsentimental and pragmatic Chanakya himself stipulated that “The root of Happiness was Dharma (Righteousness), the root of Dharma was Wealth, the root of Wealth was Power, and the root of Power was Conquest of the Senses”:
Thus the key to our prosperity and happiness comes not from greed, but from good. Greed is not Good–how could it be? Goodness is good, virtue is good, self-restraint and consideration for others is good. Dharma is good. Therefore, it is incumbent on humanity to channel its energies within rather than be pulled by its appetites without.
Unrestrained, shoddy infrastructure projects exacerbated the problem in the tragic flood of 2013. Thus, as the geographic focus of AP’s development plan shifts back to our ancestral towns and cities on the coast—let us keep this ideal in mind.
It also means not turning each and every town into a new urban conglomeration. Specifically, we must find a way to balance life at different levels—village, town, and city. We must be mindful to encourage prosperity at all levels. Some of our sarcastic saviors of society have posited that village life has retained many of the worst elements of casteism, and mass urbanization is the remedy.–But to get rid of the bathwater, do we throw out the baby as well? No, the answer therefore, is to combat casteism while preserving the village.
After all, agriculture is the backbone of civilization. Only when there is surplus crop is urban society even possible. Yet urban society today is driven by the big business urge to profit unethically from everything, whether its farming or mining. The Gali family of Bellary is the perfect example of the type of crony capitalism that should not be acceptable and certainly not respectable. The natural wealth and inheritance of all Indians was mercilessly and selfishly mined and sold to India’s neighbor to the North—without national security considerations. Does it make sense to sell strategic resources like Iron and Copper to a strategic competitor that actually has more of it than India does? (Does it make sense to buy telecom equipment from the same point of origin for that matter?—“IT superpower” indeed…)
What was done in Bellary was not entrepreneurship or responsible commerce, but national plunder. Commerce with Conscience should be a prime directive for modern India and society in general. Business as usual should no longer be acceptable. Becoming rich should not be the main criterion for respectability—and how one becomes rich should also matter.
Having effectively put all their eggs in one basket, the people of new Andhra Pradesh state are now questioning the old models for development and economic growth. Given the continuing farmer suicides in not only Andhra but the rest of India as well, there are serious questions about whether the current model of development is ultimately sustainable and beneficial to all citizens.
Thus, an opening has now presented itself for a new paradigm: Dharmic Development.
To date, growth and wealth has been an either-or proposition. Poverty or Riches, Backwardness or Development, Communism or Capitalism, Agriculture or IT (we can also add Communalism or Pseudo-Secularism to that list–but that is another matter…). Perhaps it is time for our people to take a page out of the book of Andhra’s own Nagarjuna. No, not this Nagarjuna, butthis one. The legendary Buddhist monk hailed from our region and presented the philosophy of Madhyamika, or the middle path that ultimately originated from the Buddha himself. This third way, in between ascetism/deprivation and sensuousness/greed, if you will, offers a new approach to development–a Dharmic one.
Regular readers are familiar with the excellent article composed by Krishnarjun gaaru called Dharmanomics. This post attempts to move forward the foundation he laid with it and I want to thank him for giving his generous encouragement in this endeavor.
Read now the wisdom of Maharishi Veda Vyasa, who wrote the following at the end of the Mahabharata (Svargarohanika Parva, S.5):
Oorddhva baahurviromyesha na kashchit shrnothi me
Dharmaath artthasha kaamascha kim na sevyati?
I raise my hands up [in frustration] and say “The way to wealth and love is through Dharma—why doesn’t anybody listen?!”
The Dharma of Development
“business number nahin, business log hai” (business is not about numbers (i.e. profit/growth), it’s about people)
What is Development and what is its purpose?
Too often our newly minted college and MBA grads rote cite assorted theories on GDP and manufacturing capacity without understanding the underlying definition and purpose of development. Development does not mean merely commercial development of a country.
Development also means national development. It is the ability of a country to provide for its citizens’ material, economic, political, and social needs through the harnessing of nature for technological purposes to responsibly meet the challenges of modernity.
Thus, at its core, development is about meeting the needs of a society’s citizenry. Our current era of technological advancement has necessitated not only financial and infrastructural capital, but human capital. For far too long the assumption has existed that farming and rural life is somehow the driver of poverty. Lack of resources to meet one’s needs is the cause for poverty. When far too much emphasis is placed on the needs of only one factor of production, the others suffer. That is the current state of affairs in a global economy that is staring at the precipice.
Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship are all the textbook factors of production for productive economic activity (and of course, the over emphasized “growth”). What is the value of each of these? Land provides terrain for agriculture, mining, infrastructure, and housing. Labor (over-emphasized by Marx and Engels) provides the ability to harness and manufacture. Capital, alternatively specie (i.e. gold, silver) is a means of exchange acceptable to others allowing for investing in productive enterprises and storing value. And lastly, entrepreneurship, which is the expertise and drive in conceiving, building, and managing organizations and endeavors (whether commercial or societal) that productively and usefully apply the previous three. But all four of these factors are finite. While new ways can be devised to productively apply or leverage them (also a function of entrepreneurship), total productivity, and more importantly, total utility to society will eventually level off. As such, unceasing growth is simply not possible and will be increasingly diminishing in returns. So how can it be the basis of value and the basis of the modern concept of wealth? How can it be the basis for all economic decision-making?
It is the height of folly and adharma that India is now joining the bandwagon of countries like China and the Gulf states to rely on African agricultural land for Agro-business. When India has the second largest supply of Arable landon the Earth, how on Earth can its business interests join the Adharmic rush to have Africans supply food to the rest of the world? A continent whose countries such as Somalia have become synonymous with famine and starvation cannot possibly be expected to supply food to wealthier nations when its citizens have vast numbers of empty bellies to fill. Proponents argue that it is a more efficient use of resources (presumably they come from the same school as this “genius”). But before citing David Ricardo and comparative advantage, MBA automatons would be well-advised to study Adam Smith–no, not his Wealth of Nations, but The Theory of Moral Sentiments (yes, he was a moral philosopher as well–imagine that!). There is no moral or ethical or dharmic basis for countries like India and China to lay claim to agricultural lands that would better serve an African.
It is imperative that business and political leaders see not only what is profitable or efficient–but also what is ethical. Even Bentham spoke of “the greatest good of the greatest number” in his theory of Utilitarianism. Does it make any sense to deprive Africans of arable land so that India and China can allocate theirs to manufacturing and IT sweatshops?! That is the importance of Dharmanomics and Dharmic Development.
“Dharmanomics is about blending natural economy, natural justice to the modern situation”
“Food economy is the root of prosperity.”
” balancing food economy and high-end manufacturing is critical for prosperity and to defend that prosperity from external threats.”
“farmland shouldn’t become an instrument of investment for profit. Only professional farmer have to be allowed ownership of farmland and the community.”
“The Panchayat has to certify him as farmer ”
“Harmony of self and environment is the essence of Dharma and to see the possibility of such harmony in the economy is Dharmanomics”
Dharmic Development Corollaries:
State shall adhere to Dharmic mandates of Raksha, Palana, and Yogakshema of the land and its people
Sanctity of Spiritual places must be observed/preserved
Development must be Sustainable in nature with fair, productive, and ecologically harmonious distribution of resources
Emphasis on renewables/caution with permeables
Any drastic changes to or transformations of ecologies only at utmost to dire need
Decentralized development should be premised on responsible & preferably decentralized ownership
Agricultural and Manufacturing Cooperatives for economies of scale
Life cycle planning-Corps have responsibility to not only plan end user marketing, but also end user goods disposal/recycling
Prioritization of agriculture and the needs of agriculturalists
Arable land should be should be used primarily for agriculture
Individual farms the building blocks, not big business
Organic food & Community Ownership seed banks to preserve bio-diversity
Emphasis on societal/national interest and the family unit
Due consideration for weaker and vulnerable sections of society: i.e. pregnant women, children, the elderly, infirm, and disabled.
Corporations are not citizens…citizens are citizens
Prioritization of the needs of children in marriages
Protections against exploitation of human beings, whether through means of force, finance, or enterprise
Humane treatment of animals, especially livestock, whether for products or byproducts, in line with Bharatiya Dharma
Balance of rights and duties. Duties come first.
Dharmic Development Corollaries Explanation:
1.State shall adhere to Dharmic mandates of Raksha, Palana, and Yogakshema of the land and its people
The Arthashastra emphasized Raksha (protection from external threat), Palana (internal law and order) and Yogakshema (welfare of the land and people) as the three obligations of Government. Thus, rather than brainless parroting of vacuous nostrums such as “reform”, “globalization”, “economic liberty”, public officials must bear these in mind when instituting and implementing policy. India’s telecom blundering is a textbook example of violating all three. Government is not subordinate to business, business is subordinate to government and the Yogakshema of the citizenry.
2.Sanctity of Spiritual places must be observed/preserved
I know some long time supporters may not like it (but healthy disagreement and civil discussion is good anyway), but I have to differ with the current push to turn spiritual places like Tirupati andPrayag into IT hubs and Smart cities). Opponents may argue that Tirumala is not Tirupati and Prayag is not what is called “Allahabad”, but the reality is the spiritual suburb itself is dependent on the greater urban area for supplies, workers, and atmosphere.
If the sanctity of Harmandir Sahib (Sikh Golden Temple) can be preserved cooperatively by even an Amritsar Domino’s Pizza reportedly refusing to serve alcohol within 1km of the sansthan, then there is no reason not to expect Tirupati or Greater Prayag’s sanctity to not be similarly respected. After all, pilgrims themselves stay in Guest Houses that are very frequently outside the Devasthanam, etc, should they not go with spirituality in mind rather than pubs and clubs?
3.Development must be Sustainable in nature with fair, productive, and ecologically harmonious distribution of resources
Resources such as water and other essential commodities for life are part of the common wealth. After security from external threat and internal disturbances are taken care of, priority shall be on ensuring fair and reasonable distribution to the public. In particular, treated waste water (grey water) should got to industrial use. Priority for clean water should be for personal consumption, then agriculture, and then only industrial use. Furthermore, the citizenry and the business community should be educated on how not to waste water and how to harvest it.
Next, there should be an emphasis on renewables & caution with permeables. Accidents with nuclear power in Japan (as well as gas in the US) are well known, resulting in countries like Germany preventing the construction of new plants and the phasing out of old ones. As such, while there may be a basic need for strategic reasons, India should proceed with utmost caution with respect to emphasizing nuclear power and mining of its required resources. While renewables such as solar, wind, and hydro come with their own host of issues, responsible use of them (coupled with R&D) may offer better alternatives.
Third, any drastic changes to or transformations of ecologies should only be at utmost to dire need. China has come under the microscope for its penchant towards giant dams (such as the Three Gorges). Hydrologists have established that smaller dams are better for ecosystems, displace fewer people, and better integrate with the land.
4.Decentralized development should be premised on responsible & preferably decentralized ownership
No state more bitterly learned the lesson of putting all its eggs in one basket than Andhra Pradesh. Investors and common middle class citizens alike focused on the development of Hyderabad as synonymous with the development of AP. The net result was not only neglect of other cities, but also the tragic and ongoing agrarian crisis that continues to plague farmers in both Telugu states. Thus, decentralized development is imperative. Furthermore, this should be premised on the notion of decentralized ownership.
Economies of scale has long been the sacred incantation of international economics. Joint Ventures, Corporate mergers and unrestricted FDI are pointed to as panaceas for society and “necessary reform” without proper evaluation or discussion. While productive and fair business should be encouraged, anti-trust measures must not only be firmly in place but firmly applied. Even the most famous among them can get eroded through disuse, carelessness, and misguided zeitgeist.
Agricultural cooperatives should therefore be encouraged as should artisan and manufacturing guilds like Ancient India’s Srenis. This will provide the necessary economies of scale (through collaboration) while ensuring that profits are fairly distributed among farmers themselves, rather than corporate fat cats.
R&D and innovation intensive strategic industries can of course continue with the corporate model, but with appropriate government oversight and accountability. Particularly for industries involving the use of harmful or polluting resources, Life cycle planning should be mandated by government. Byproducts and waste cannot simply be discharged untreated into rivers. Moreover, corporations have a responsibility to not only plan end user marketing, but also end user goods disposal/recycling. Corporate interest should not be allowed to harm national interest, in the name of “profits” & “economic efficiency”.
5.Prioritization of agriculture and the needs of agriculturalists
Arable land should be used primarily for agriculture. As already touched on, countries like India should be more than capable of supplying their own food needs. Rather than having farmers mis-educated into emphasizing cash crops and questionable chemicals, organic farming should be encouraged instead. India instituted impressive land reform at Independence. As a result, rather than stumbling back to feudal, share-cropping farming under big business, the individual farmer should be able to stand on his own two feet as the building block of society.
6.Emphasis on the family unit and societal/national interest
Due consideration for weaker and vulnerable sections of society: i.e. pregnant women, children, the elderly, infirm, and disabled should be pursued. While India already has legislation to protect these segments of society, law alone without promotion of societal interest in our culture and every day behavior cannot be relied upon. While India is woefully under-policed, who in turn are under-equipped (as 26/11 tragically demonstrated), it has nevertheless managed to have lower crime rates in general.
To ensure that they are lower still, this emphasis of society and Dharma must be promoted at all levels. After all, the common Dharma was not only for the proverbial Brahmins (scholars, teachers) and Kshatriyas (leaders, administrators), but Vaisyas (merchants) and Sudras (workers) as well. Modern day equivalents of Vaisyas, whether from Infosys or Bharti also have responsibilities to society. Thus, business must be pursued in harmony with the common Dharma–which means billionaire businessmen whether born a Murthy or a Mittal must be expected to ply their profitable trade in harmony with the national interest–rather than gainsay andundermine it. And political leaders, whether Rajput or a (D.) Raja cannot give in to graft, and must uphold the national interest. Corporations are not citizens…citizens are citizens. Much ink has been spilled on this already, but as discussed immediately above, business interests cannot be allowed to stomp all over the rights of the average citizen. While the opinions of business leaders must be solicited to ensure their needs are taken into account while pursuing national interest, they cannot be permitted to outweigh the voices of the national citizenry. In a democracy, the ultimate sovereign is not the money-minded peddler, but the people.
Finally, for development to properly take place, the needs of children, elderly parents and stable marriages must be prioritized above individual caprice. Legal protections are in place to ensure individual rights are preserved, but national development can only truly take place if responsible adults act in the interest of the next generation (as well as the previous one) to ensure they grow up in happy, healthy homes to become productive and emotionally healthy citizens of the future. Though there are certainly exceptions to the rule, the ultimate purpose of marriage is to form a stable, healthy environment for the raising of children. Aged parents as part of the Indian joint family have historically facilitated this process. While elders surely should pass on the torch to the children once they retire (as Kings should abdicate at the right time), our young modern couples should be expected to look after their mothers and fathers, not dump them off in a retirement home or ship them off to Vrindavan. Our laws and civil society should reflect this through incentives–but respectable elite and middle class society and culture should also frown upon the selfish men and women who care only about themselves and their supposedly “progressive” lifestyles.
It also means worker hours should be reasonable and work life balance promoted to prevent exploitation. Corporations should not seek to squeeze every last drop of productivity out of their workers, but motivate them through a good work environment. A happy worker is a productive worker & strong families make happy workers & healthy societies.
7.Protections against exploitation of human beings, whether through means of force, finance, or enterprise
The 2008 crisis is now a well-known facet of economic debate. Less discussed is the private debt crisis plaguing the average person in many countries. India must not replicate the same mistakes. Exploitation takes place through many means, whether socio-religious or socio-economic, thus it is imperative that India’s development not mortgage the futures of its labor force by driving to them graduate with the equivalent of mortgages on the backs of new graduates.
Furthermore, corporations, social enterprises and non-profits must also be checked from taking advantage of their role. Here is a classic example of a good idea with good intentions,gone wrong due to corporate greed. Finance and capital must be harnessed to support society rather than exploit it through usury and debt. Therefore, consumer protection must be in place to prevent the illiterate or unsophisticated from being taken advantage of. The freedom of contract must be balanced by laws against exploitation and unjust enrichment. Just as a pirate has not right to argue that his plunder came from “entrepreneurship”, neither can a corporate buccaneer with respect to employees and citizens.
8.Humane treatment of animals, especially livestock, whether for products or byproducts, in line with Bharatiya Dharma
Whether its the living conditions of animals, the cruel methods used to acquire their products, or the manipulation of their nature, it is imperative that science and profit be tempered by the ethics of Dharma. The production of milk and meat should not be dictated by bottom lines but by the natural capacity of the animal for providing, the humanity of collecting, and the tempering of the human rapacity for consuming. It is not merely a spiritual stretch-goal but a matter of human health as well.
While vegetarianism is the ideal, it should not and cannot be legally mandated. At the same time the traditions of Bharatiya culture have spanned ages, and should be respected. This means respect for all animal life, and special protection for the Gau/Avu/Cow. The native species must be preserved as far as humanly possibly rather than employing unethical means to tamper with their nature and population. Most of all, adharmic means to extract their milk in a way that causes them or their calves distress should not be employed. At the same time, this must be balanced by ensuring that meandering members of the bovine species aren’t plodding down main roads of modern cities or their various flyovers.
9.Balance of rights and duties. Duties come first.
While the modern liberal state is founded upon Individual rights, individuals must also be mindful of their duties to society. As such, law and cultural expectations must ensure that individuals not engage in crass materialism that jeopardizes national interest and society itself. This means that while individual rights should be protected, the individual must be educated to think about society and his or her dharma to it. Far too many people are still obsessed with caste privileges, but who remembers societal duty? Without duty there can be no privilege, and without society there can be no rights. Rather than get people to obsess about their caste, whatever their caste, let them be concerned about what obligations their privilege and modern wealth brings.
In sum, development must be conducted in a way that safeguards the preservation of Saamanya Dharma–the Common Dharma irrespective of varna/jati/occupation.
How to Implement
In a recent post, we wrote on how the well known adageCleanliness is Next to Godlinessmust be our watch-word for our habits and neighborhoods, but it should also be the foundation for our approach to development. Economic and even strategic needs should not be pursued without due consideration for the impact on the health and pavitrata of the environment and its people. More than just corporate social responsibility, it means economic and national responsibility, which axiomatically necessitate not destructive development, but dharmic development. So how to implement all this?
Contrary to many of the alarmists, the objective of this proposal is not to turn the clock back 500 or 5000 years. Rather, the purpose is to take inspiration from our own native philosophies to fill the vacuum left behind by a society with only the steel frame of law sans cultural coherence or ethical mooring.
One of our greatest and yet most pragmatic political thinkers was a dasiputra (i.e. son of a servant woman). Yet Vidura was the most astute politician of his era and second in temporal wisdom only to Lord Krishna himself. Read now what this brilliant minister of Kings advised:
He that desires the highest success in all matters connected with worldly profit, should from the very beginning practise virtue [Dharma], for true profit is never separated from Heaven
He that followeth virtue, profit, and desire in proper seasons, obtaineth hereafter, a combination of all three.
Thus wealth and profit should never descend to lobha (greed). However, only an ethical culture and dharmic education can enlighten businessmen and businesswomen to think this way. Our business schools and colleges must train students to balance their quest for profit with virtue/dharma/obligation to society. This lays the foundation for ensuring a grassroots commitment to Dharmic Development.
Second, laws should be reviewed to establish a regime that keeps both business and government accountable in commerce, infrastructure, and general policy.
Kautilya provided principles for Fair Trade to ensure that business was conducted dharmically by merchants. Examples include injunctions against the creation of artificial scarcity and prevention of hoarding against the public interest. As we previously wrote in the foundational piece on “Cleanliness”, nuisance to the neighbors/public/and society in general should be punished. Industry cannot expect to continue its irresponsible behavior of build and dump. Furthermore, laws to impose punishment for cruelty to animals should also be examined and implemented where applicable. More importantly, however, was the emphasis on agriculture.
He wrote that “Cultivable land is better than mines because mines fill only the treasury while agricultural production fills both the treasury and the storehouses“. Thus the ruler “had to ensure that agriculture was protected from harassment“. Our politicians must therefore evaluate the needs of the farmer and reorient the top-down IT economy so that it starts from agriculture at the bottom before moving up to smart cities.
Above all, is the creation of a culture of responsibility and dharma.Law and stern law-enforcement can only do so much; it is the culture of a society that drives responsible, ethical, and dharmic development. Therefore, all sections of society must be educated on the common societal Acara and the common societal Dharma. That will create the ethical citizenry needed to properly develop India and the ranks from which moral leaders can be drawn.
Some may argue that many of Kautilya’s laws were antiquated, but the point is not to implement his laws or teachings verbatim. Rather, the purpose is to infuse his spirit of pragmatic Dharma while discarding whatever may be deemed casteist or unjust. Much as the religious aspects of Dharma change from age to age, so too do the practical aspects of Rajdharma.
One of the most common, even cliche, concerns about Dharma is “caste” (misnomer for varna/jati). Indeed, it is a matter of Debate even within the various Indic traditions. As such, the implementation of Dharmic Development and Dharmanomics should be under the precepts of Saamaanya Dharma, i.e. “The Common Dharma”. It is for this reason we have emphasized the importance of Bharatiya Dharma rather than Dharma as interpreted by a single religion, because Dharma transcends the narrow definition applied to religion (i.e. 1 book, 1 way, etc). In fact, religion more correctly translates to Panth, thereby demonstrating that Dharma transcends religion, and why it is asserted that Indic Civilization is the home of Dharmic civilization.
Naysayers may argue by stating that this is just a ploy to “implement a brahminical conspiracy”, but this is patently motivated falsehood, as Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism all propound the importance and benefits of the common Dharma, only interpret it without caste. It is for this reason that this article is not called “Hindu Development” and ostensibly why the foundational article by Krishnarjun gaaru is not called “Hindunomics”.
Saamaanya Dharma in action means living our principles, which, more than any green technology could ever hope to do, create a society that lives frugally, selflessly, and prosperously, and all without ravaging the Earth. But rather than take our word for it, see what current research has to say on the topic.
“India, which has ranked first in food sustainability in every Greendex, came out far ahead again, thanks to its culturally dictated eating habits. Nearly one in four Indians is a vegetarian, and those who aren’t tend to avoid beef, the most environmentally damaging meat. Indians have reduced the amount of imported food they eat and increased their consumption of locally produced, homegrown, and organic foods.“
Rebuilding Andhra…and India
Swacch Bharat is a great step forward for creating a clean, livable, and modern India. But the foundation for this vision will come not from a campaign for civic sense, a change in habits, or even sufficient infrastructure, but rather, from a fundamental shift in our philosophical outlook.
Colonialism left what was once the richest and most developed country & civilization of the world in ruins. Worst of all, was the mental and cultural colonialism perpetrated that left naive Indians thinking they were always economically backward and culturally inferior–and that a foreign “savior” had to routinely present himselfor herself to save India from superstition,caste and now (the modern reincarnation of this) “communalism”.
Rather than looking to the Middle east, Europe, or even China (we have seen how all these regions have fared–especially since 2008), perhaps it is time to look within for inspiration. It is time for a paradigm shift. Rather than continue to argue ourselves hoarse about the virtues of capitalism this, humanity that, or Confucian harmony there, it is time for the Indic concept of Dharmic Development to present itself as the middle way.
India was once the legendary land of not only philosophers and damsels, but righteous men and untold riches…with the right philosophy & guiding principles, it can be so again.
Oorddhva baahurviromyesha na kashchit shrnothi me
Dharmaath artthasha kaamascha kim na sevyati?
I raise my hands up and say “The way to wealth and love is through Dharma—why doesn’t anybody listen?!”
Disclaimer: ACP understands that there may have been publications that may have touted the term “Dharmic Development” in the very recent past. This idea and article was independently presented here, without having read or having been inspired by them.