Monthly Archives: September 2016

పంచతంత్రం STORIES OF PANCHATANTRA—Mitra Labhamu (Gaining Friends) Ch.4

mithralabhamu4

పంచతంత్రం

STORIES OF PANCHATANTRA

IN SIMPLE TELUGU POEMS — TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH

MITRA LABHAMU- GAINING FRIENDS-Chapter 4

§

[Continuing the Series of Original Poems on the Panchatantra by Chandra gaaru, is Chapter 3 of Mitra Labhamu. Chapters 1 & 2 can be found here and Chapter 3 here.]

 

1.
విష్ణు శర్మ నామ విప్రుండు గురువు
శిష్యులందరికిని చెప్పె కథలు
నాడు నేడు రేపు నీతి బతుకు రీతి
పంచతంత్ర మంచు పేరు నిడెను!  1

………………………………………………

36.
ఆరు లక్షణములు ఇరువురి బ్రేమకు
పంచు కొనుట గలుగ యుంచు కొనక
పుచ్చు కొనుట కరుణ ఇచ్చిన బహుమతి
వలయు పంచుకొనగ తెలిసిన మాటయు! 36
తాత్పర్యము

English: There are six distinct characteristics to define friendship between two individuals. 1. Sharing whatever is possessed without being miser. 2. Accepting whatever is given out of love and 3. Sharing the thoughts through the word of mouth.
kaakihiranyaka

37.
చెప్పు మాటలు వినును చెవుల కింపు గాగ
తిండి బంచు హితుకు తాను తినగ
తినును హితుడు తనకు దానమిచ్చిన తిండి
గుణము లివియె బ్రేమ గుఱుతు బట్ట! 37
తాత్పర్యము

English: 4. The other friend hears the words spoken by the first with attention. 5. While eating he shares food with the friend. 6. The real friend savours the food so served by the other. These are the six characteristics that define true friendship.

38.
కాంక లివ్వ శివుడు కరుణతొ జూచును
గడ్డి బెట్ట యావు బిడ్డ మరచి
బాలు ఇచ్చు జాల బ్రేమ మీరంగను
ఇచ్చి పుచ్చు కొనుట యసలు బ్రేమ! 38
తాత్పర్యము

English: God gives boons if we appease him with small gifts. If we feed grass the cow gives milk even forgetting to feed the calf. The real friendship lies in give and take.

39.
సాగ వారి మైత్రి సామ్యమునను
వాశి కుదుర ఎలుక వాయసమ్ముకు
కలుగు వదిలి ఎలుక కాకి పక్కకు వచ్చె
రెక్క నడుమ డాగి సుఖము నుండె! 39
తాత్పర్యము

English: As the friendship between the mouse and the crow established like this, and mutual trust between them increased by the day, the mouse came out of the hole and settled in the feather-bed of the crow.

40.
అంతట యొక దినము యాయాస పడుచును
వాయసమ్ము వచ్చె వేగము గాను
తాను ఇచట నుండ తగదని ఏడిచె
ఎలుక చింత చెందె ఏమి యాయె! 40
తాత్పర్యము

English: As days were passing by like this, one day the crow came flying fast sweltering and breathless and told the mouse that it would be impossible for her to stay there in the forest. The mouse asked him what had turned up.

41.
వాయసమ్ము బలికె యాయాసమును వీడి
కరువు వచ్చి పడెను కాన యందు
గంజి లేక జనులు కాక బలు లాపిరి
బోయ వాడు వలను బట్టు కొచ్చె! 41
తాత్పర్యము

English: The crow recouped her breath and said that a severe drought hit the surroundings of the forest and people, unable to feed themselves stopped offerings to crows. ( This reference is to the offerings of cooked read rice to crows during Yagas and at the time of paying obsequies to the Departed). Hunters are on prowl to net the various birds in the forest.

42.
బోయ వాండ్రు వచ్చి బన్నిరి వలలను
నేను వలను చిక్కి నయమున వచ్చితి
ప్రాణ ముండ నేను బయటకు బోవలె
ఎటుల యైన బోదు ఎచట కయిన! 42
తాత్పర్యము

English: I too got caught in one net, but through my tact I came out. If I want to live I should leave the forest. I should go somewhere, somehow.

43.
యనగ విని యెలుక యెంతయు చింతించి
యిటుల బలికె ‘హితుడ ‘ యెటుల బోదు
విపుడు గమ్య మెచట వేగిర బడకుము
యాపద సమయమున యాలో చించు! 43
తాత్పర్యము

English: Hearing the melancholic story of the crow, the perturbed mouse said. “Oh! Friend! Where will you go now? What is the destination? Do not hurry. In times of trouble, you should think”

44.
యనగ బలికె కాకి యెంతయొ బ్రేమతొ
కలడు యొక్క హితుడు కారడవిన
మందరకము యతడు మిత్రము హితుడును
కూర్మ రాజు యతడు కావ గలడు! 44
తాత్పర్యము

English: The crow said with lots of affection. “ I have a friend yonder deep in the forest. He is a Tortoise. His name is Mandaraka. He can provide us a secure place”

45.
స్నేహ శీలి యతడు సాకును మనలను
కబురు లాడు కొనుచు గడుప వచ్చు
సుఖము నుండ వచ్చు సమయము తెలియదు
నోరు మంచి దైన యూరు మంచి! 45
తాత్పర్యము

English: He is of a very friendly disposition. He will patronise us. We can spend time in friendly conversations. We can live happily without knowing time. If our word is good, world is good to us.

46.
దూర మేగ వలయు దేహము కాపాడ
కాపు (రక్ష) లేదు కాల మెట్లు గడచు
పోద మటకు బేగ పయనము యగుమన
మూషికుండు బలికె మరల ఇటుల! 46
తాత్పర్యము

English: To secure ourselves, we may have to travel beyond borders. How can we spend time here fearing for security day on day? Get ready! We shall travel fast. Hearing this the mouse said thus.

47.
ఎగుర గలవు నీవు యాకస మందున
నేను ఎటుల వత్తు నడక తోడ
యనగ కాకి బలికె యెంతయొ బ్రేమతొ
భయము వలదు హితుడ కలదు వెరవు! 47
తాత్పర్యము

English: You can fly high in the air. How can I follow you on land at snail’s pace? Hearing the doubt of the Mouse the crow said, “Do not fear. There is a way out of this tricky issue”

48.
ఎగుర గలను నేను ఎంతపైకి యయిన
గింగిరాలు కొట్టి కింద దిగెద
నాదు వీపు మీద నీవు కూరుచొనుము
యెగిరి పోద మటులె యేల భయము! 48
తాత్పర్యము

English: “Yes! Right! I can fly high in the air. I can do acrobatics in the air and land safely anywhere. You sit on my back. Why should you fear? We shall fly together.”

49.
ఎక్క మూషికుండు యెగిరెను కాకియు
మిత్రు జూడ ఎంతొ ముదము తోడ
ఆకసమున బోయె యమిత వేగముతోడ
చేరె బేగ చెలుని చెరువు చెంత! 49
తాత్పర్యము

English: Thus, as the mouse sat comfortably on her back the crow flew into the skies with intense speed and pleasure and reached his friend, the Tortoise place.meeting-a-new-friend-1

50.
పిలిచె హితుడ చూడు పరుగున వచ్చితి
వచ్చి కౌగలించు వొక్క సారి
మేని స్పర్శ మంచి గంధము కాదొకొ
కప్పురంబు తోడ కలియు రీతి! 50
తాత్పర్యము

English: After landing on the banks of the lake where the tortoise lives, the crow called out. “Oh! Friend! I came to see you with doubled up enthusiasm. Come and hug me. Elders say that the touch of a friend’s body is like camphor coated with sandalwood.

51.
కూర్మ మొచ్చి చూసె కడు సంతసము తోడ
కుశల మడిగె బ్రేమ కాకి జూసి
అడిగె హితుడ యెలుక యెటులొచ్చె నీ తోడు
కాకి తినదె యెలుక కాన గానె!
తాత్పర్యము

English: The tortoise came out with immense happiness and asked about the welfare of the crow. He asked with surprise, “Is not mouse your food? How could it accompany you, without your devouring him?”

52.
కాకి బలికె ఇటుల కడు ప్రేమ తోడను
మూషికుండు నాకు మంచి హితుడు
పరుల సేవ యతని పరమార్ధ మగుటను
చూసి నేనె యతని చెంత బోతి!
తాత్పర్యము

English: Crow said thus. “This Mouse King, Hiranyaka, is my best friend. His life is dedicated in the service of others. Looking at his service to others, I only approached him for a hand of friendship”

53.
మాయ లేదు యితడు మర్మమె యెరుగడు
నన్ను విడిచి యుండ నేర కుండె
మోసుకొస్తి ఇటకు మందరకమా యన
యెలుక చెప్పె ఇటుల యతని కధను!
తాత్పర్యము

English: The crow further said,” There is nothing secretive about his affairs and does not know miracles. He was unable to stay back in our earlier abode without me being there. So, I carried him on my back all the way, Oh! Mandaraka!” Then the mouse, Hiranyaka started telling his past story thus.
the-rescue-of-a-deer-1


 

न कोई किसी का मित्र है और न ही शत्रु, कार्यवश ही लोग मित्र और शत्रु बनते हैं॥

Personalities: Savithri

savithri

From Mahanari Savitri over at ICP, we go to Mahanati Savithri here at ACP.  After a long hiatus from phillims, we return to the Cinema star who started it all.

A legendary woman in her own right who needs no introduction to the Telugu people, our next Personality in our Continuing Series is the original doyenne of Telugu Cinema. She stood astride the southern film industries like a female colossus, and remains to this day, our most universally beloved actress. It may be hard to imagine a time before Sridevi in the cinema of the South, but the original Missamma was the Amma to all actresses since.

Background

Known by many names and given many titles, Savithri  Kommareddy was born Nissankararao, Savithri in the Andhra region of the erstwhile Madras Presidency, in 1936. Her natal place was Chiravurru, Guntur District. She lost her father, Guravayya, at the tender age of 6 months, causing her mother, Subhadramma, to take her and her elder sister Maruti to live with their aunt. She thenceforth grew up in Vijayawada.

Early on, she demonstrated a talent for dance, and her uncle enrolled her in classical dance and music classes.She was instructed by Guru Sishtla, Purnayya Sastry. After only a year, she excelled under his guidance, and he recognised and praised her talent.

It took less than a year under his tutelage for Savithri to become a skilled dancer.  Almost all the dances she learned involved the stories from the Puranas. [6]

At age 11, she joined a theatre troupe (Arunodaya Natya Mandali) and performed all across the coastal region. After this, her family decided to take her to Chennai (then Madras), to try to make her a star. It was said that Savithri’s favourite actor was Akkineni, Nageswara Rao, and she tried to catch glimpses of him. Although initially cast alongside him for the film Samsaaram (1950), the role later went to Lakshmi Kanthamma. As fate would have it, Savithri would later star as his love interest in the all-time classic Maya Bazaar.

Nevertheless, Savithri proceeded with her career and was cast as a vamp in the movie Roopvati, and then danced in the movie Paathaala Bhairavi. It was 1952, however, that proved to be a banner year for her. She consecutively featured in Sankranthi, Palleturi Pilla (her first as the lead heroine), and Devadasu. She also was cast in a Hindi movie Bahut Din Hue and a Tamizh film Manampol Mangalyam. Originally Bhanumati was cast in Missamma, but due to differences with the producer, she left, and Savithri was cast in the title role. It would prove to be a career-defining, and indeed, industry defining part for her.

Savithri was also making an impact in Kollywood. Beyond the Tamizh version of Missamma, she was also seen in Kanyasulkam and many other movies. It was on the set of Missiamma, however, that the closeness between her and Gemini Ganesan was noticed. The entire South would eventually be blindsided when it found out Savithri secretly married Ganesan in 1952 itself. That year was a banner one in more ways than one. Interestingly, there is an anecdote wherein GG came across a star-struck Savithri. He is said to have recommended her in 1948, when she visited Gemini Studios with her mother. Ganesan apparently wrote on her picture that she was promising, if given an opportunity.

If 1952 was a banner year, 1956  was a roller coaster. She starred in numerous films (‘Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu’, ‘Mangalya Balam’, ‘Bhale Ammayilu’, ‘Thodi Kodallu’, ‘Gundamma Katha’)and received many awards. But she and the already much-married, many-fathering Gemini Ganesan finally went public about their marriage. She would give birth to a daughter that year as well. She would later have their son.

1957 represented the highwater mark, with the industry-defining Maya Bazaar. It was a movie that was Epic in every sense of the word, and would truly cement Savithri’s star on the proverbial walk of fame. From girlish glee, to feminine cleverness, to moonstruck loveliness, Savithri shone in this role like the chandamama in the song Lahiri Lahiri.

After 1963’s Narthanasala, Savithri went on to other roles. She was still making films throughout the 70s (especially in Tamizh), but began producing and directing as well. One of her movies took 5 years to produce, and is attributed to causing later monetary issues.

Despite her glistening career, fame, and fortune, Savithri died at the young age of 46. The long-suffering woman of Gundamma Katha had decided she had suffered Gemini Ganesan’s affairs long enough and walked out of the marriage. A generous person by her nature, she was defrauded by the many sycophants and parasites who had set up court around her. These same folk would abandon her later in life when she was in financial troubles.

Her biographical accounts make reference to how she drowned her sorrows in drink. Whether it was a disease or not that claimed her life at the young age of 46, it was clear that she really died of a broken heart in 1981. She had married the wrong man, trusted the wrong people, and lived out the remainder of her life in Bangalorean loneliness.

With a life-story fit for a screenplay tragedy, Savithri nevertheless set the benchmark for all actresses since. Despite her comparatively shorter life, what she achieved in cinema has yet to be exceeded, nor is likely to be. She was the first true female super-star, but more importantly, she was a truly theatre-trained talent who brought her myriad talents to the screen. As she was in her childhood drama troupe so she was in peak of life, the crowd-puller and centre of attention.

But a life such as hers should be celebrated rather than mourned. What were her achievements in reel life and real life?

Achievements

From Maya Bazaar, to Missamma, to Gundamma Katha and beyond, the impact of Savithri on the silver screen in Andhra Golden age of cinema is hard to minimise. She was the original grande dame of Telugu Cinema.

She brought a subtlety, a delicacy, and lovability, and a gravitas which is rare to detect in actors of any era (let alone this one). She remains the benchmark against which all serious actresses weigh their performances. Sridevi remains the quintessential complete actress, but Savithri is the naati who brought true Nataka in its highest form, to mass cinema.

Despite the celebrated greatness of Maya Bazaar, Savithri will forever be remembered for her title role as Missamma.

Savitri was a multi-faceted genius. She was not only an actress, but also a director, producer and writer [5]

Missamma was the role that defined her career, and in many ways, her life.  She was the cultured girl in a post-Independence India, who still managed to be modern…on her own terms. She managed to demonstrate that empowerment means more than slick youtube videos or prurient and shrill protests. Rather, true empowerment was strong will, and living a meaningful life.

From starring roles at an early age to gender-empowering parts at the height of stardom, Savithri was a pioneer in Telugu Cinema. This Guntur girl managed to achieve fame in a number of industries beyond her native Andhra, and was cast in Tamizh, Hindi, Malayalam, and Kannada cinema as well. She had completed her conquest of the South and had made forays in the North.

Credited with 253 films. At one point she was making a film a month!

Savithri made such an impression on the minds of film-makers, that this actress who dominated the 50s and 60s was still appearing in films (posthumously) in the mid-80s!

She received numerous awards over the course of her illustrious career. From Filmfare to Rashtrapati to Nandi, she was no stranger to the coveted accolades of her profession.

But as is the case with so many of the luminaries of Andhra, from Balamurali Krishna to Vempati Chinna Satyam to P.Suseela, “Had she been born in other States, she would have earned much more name than what she had gained“. [5]

Rather than doing nothing and blaming people for the state of their culture, perhaps its time this state’s  public take responsibility and start investing in institutions that promote culture and promote cultural icons like Savithri who became veritable institutions.

Legacy

Nata Siromani, Kalaimamani and Nadigayar Thilakam, Mahanati Savitri has to her credit several Filmfare awards, Rashtrapati award for ‘Chivaraku Migiledi’ and a permanent place in the hearts of people.

Savithri was the original lady screen legend of the Telugu Film Industry. She cast a wide shadow over the South, and appropriately, was the natural choice to even play her Missamma role in Tamizh. gundammakatha

Gundamma Katha was another film that was a milestone. Irrespective of the original quiet nature of her character, Savithri is practically enjoying this scene below, and the crass cat-fight that ensues. Indeed, we see how her character, Lakshmi, has become an assertive (rather than a passive or aggressive) woman, who remains cultured, but capable of defending herself and others.

Almost as interesting as the variegated roles she played on screen, was Savithri’s life off-screen. She has been the subject of many books: ‘Mahanati Savitri Venditera Samragni by Pallavi, ‘A Legendary Actress Mahanati Savitri’ by VR Murthy and  ‘Savitri Jeevita Charitra’ by GVG. The latest is ‘Venditera Vishadaraagaalu’ by Pasupuleti, Ramarao.

Pop culture has itself been no stranger to celebrating the life and legacy of Mahanati Savithri. In fact, there has been recent news that a silver screen biopic is slated for production, starring Nithya Menon.

There is even a Mahanati Savitri Sahitya, Samskrutika Kalapeetham Sankshema Sangham that celebrates her life and commemorates her occasions. Her daughter is seen here, paying tribute to her mother’s life.

She is like sandalwood that spreads fragrance all around; she is like a piece of camphor that fearlessly glows in the darkness of night – said Jnanpith Awardee, eminent writer Ravuri Bharadwaj.[2]

She had the grace of the all-enduring Indian woman, but with the cool and quietly burning Shakti of a Rani, that could burn hot when required. Perhaps no role better embodied her range than Gundamma Katha, where she did precisely that. The Bharatiya Naari, like Savithri, is not someone to be take for granted!

Truly, with the career and contribution of Mahanati Savithri, nidra leychindi mahilaa lokam.

References:

  1. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0767800/
  2. http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/2013-12-22/Drama-in-real-life-80115
  3. http://www.cinejosh.com/news/3/36972/differences-between-savitri-and-sridevi.html
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/mahanati-savitri-remembered/article8033877.ece
  5. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/glowing-tributes-paid-to-legendary-actor-savitri/article6730098.ece
  6. http://www.savithri.info