Tag Archives: High Culture

Temples, Antiquity, & Heritage

The following Post was composed by Spandana . You can follow her on Twitter.


Temples have been quite important parts of our lives from ancient times. Temples have always been the centre of many vibrant activities. They might be social or cultural or spiritual or sometimes even political.  In simple words we can say every temple has been a proto type of society (of that particular place, how it was and how it is).

I want to elaborate a point, which everyone may not understand or maybe don’t accept:  modernisation of our ancient temples in the name of renovations. Yes, in our state there are many ancient temples with a great past. The good news is these temples are very much functional and the chain of devotion is passing to succeeding generations without break. But are many of these ancient temples looking that ancient?? No they are completely looking ultra-new. But along with being worshiping places, aren’t these temples our standing examples of our past and our heritage?? Isn’t this our responsibility to maintain their art, architecture, unique construction, and grandeur in the way they were?? But instead of preserving we are damaging these architectural marvels in the name of renovation. The picture below, is the temple which is supposed to be one of the ancient temples in our state. New look of the ancient temple

Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu Temple

 Photo Credit: highwayonlyway.com

I am not blaming the thought of renovating ancient temples, but am only saying that renovation should be done in the way that temple reflects its grand past with the help of new techniques, instead of completely demolishing and rebuilding. Here is an ideal example of renovation:

Photo Credit: Spandana

Chola period temple (Mulasthaneswara temple) in Gajulamandyam village, was renovated in a beautiful manner—anyone can get the inspiration. All these renovations were done by locals. They took extra effort to maintain the temple’s antiquity. They cleared all paint from the temple walls just to make the old carvings and architecture visible, which was a costly process. Locals taking pride of their past, and conserving their identity is a commendable act.

Photo Credit: Spandana

In the first picture u can see the temple before renovation, in the second picture after renovation (all the paint was removed.

Not all ancient temples are under Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Many are with state endowment department. Though it is the endowment department’s job to conserve these old temples, they hardly understand or care about the antiquity or sanctity of the particular temple. Here I am taking another example of the beautiful temple in Kadapa district in Meenapuram Village:

Rajarajeswari Temple

Photo Credit: Spandana

This ancient temple is very much under the umbrella of endowment department, but this temple is conveniently neglected, due to its low income from Hundi. This temple has a beautiful stepwell in the front and ancient Kalyana mandapa made out by carving a rock. This intricately carved centuries old Kalyana mandapa completely collapsed recently. Not even a sign board or direction board is present to know about the temple. If one wants to reach this place, it’s only with help of locals.

Photo Credit: Spandana

It’s not the story of Meenapuram alone. There are many ancient temples under endowment department facing similar situation. We have examples of 500 year old SriKalahasthi gopuram and Bhavanarayana swamy temple raja gopuram collapsed, due to lack of timely care. This topic is just unending. I can write pages about this.

Photo Credit: Spandana

In brief: as a heritage lover, as a devotee, I wish our temples function well along with maintaining their antiquity and our heritage. I sincerely hope the endowment department takes some responsibility with such temples. As people, who respect our past and understand our heritage, it is our responsibility to educate people in our little circle.

        HERITAGE IS OUR PRIDE
#Heritageisourpride #Heritagemustbepreserved

              Jai Hind


Disclaimer: This article represents the opinions of the Author, and should not be considered a reflection of the views of the Andhra Cultural Portal. The Author is responsible for ensuring the factual veracity of the content, herein.

Personalities: K. Viswanath

K_viswanath_legend

In honour of the recent announcement for the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, our Post today is on its 2016 recipient.

While it is true that we Telugus often feel short-shrifted on the national award front, it’s also important to recognise when the central committees actually get it right. Continuing our ongoing Series on Andhra Personalities is that stalwart of Telugu Cinema, Sri K.Viswanath.

Background

Born in 1930, Kasinathuni Viswanath hails from Peddapulivarru, in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh. His parents were Subramanyam and Saraswathamma. His father was a manager in Vahini pictures at Vijayawada (where he would study). Viswanath would later graduate from Andhra Christian College, Guntur and then follow in the family footsteps in film.

What is often not known, is that long before he was a director and writer, he was a technician. In fact, he got his start in the Sound Department on the set of his first movie: Thodi Kodallu. Nevertheless, it was a humble start to what would go on to be a prolific career, as even a short glance at his filmography would show. With 36 films to his name as director (and around 50 in other roles), his movies represent real cultured cinema.

There are no vulgar, double entendre dialogues in his films, which are pleasant, steeped in the local ethos, and with music, dance and traditional art forms. [5]

In a poetic twist, he is said to have been noted for his talent by none other than Nageswara Rao gaaru, and the rest was history. K.Viswanath made his directorial debut in 1965’s Atma-Gouravam, featuring ANR. While he established himself in the 60s and 70s (especially with Siri Siri Muvva), it was in the subsequent decades that the screen-poet of Peddapulivarru made his maximum impact. Starting from 1980’s Sankarabharanam to 1983’s Sagara Sangamam to 1986’s Swati Muthyam to 1987’s Swayam Krushi, this was the decade in which he seemingly dominated.

In the 1990s, he would also make appearance as a mainstream actor, rounding out his cinematic abilities. Subha Sankalpam featured his acting debut, reputedly at the behest of none other than Kamal Haasan, who said the role needed a venerable person before whom he could bow.

Maximum cast in his movies were Jayaprada, Chiranjeevi, and Kamal Haasan. Other actors were Bhanupriya, Venkatesh, Radhika, Vijayasanthi, and Srikanth.

He was also fluent in Tamil and did a number of movies in that language, such as Salangai Oil and Sippikul Muthu. He also made a few Hindi movies such as Eeswar and Kaamchor, although they did not rise to the same level he achieved in Telugu.

At a time when Indic and especially Telugu language and culture is on the defensive, K.Viswanath represents the importance of steeping mass culture in classical culture. After an era plagued by back-bencher blockbusters and item-dance driven nuisance flicks, the cultural quagmire of modern India requires guiding lights to return it to the glory of Maya Bazaar and Missamma. Viswanath garu demonstrates one such deepam.

A presenter of classical and traditional art, music and dance, K Viswanath has been a guiding force in the Indian film industry. As a director he has made fifty films since 1965 known for their strong content, endearing narrative, honest handling and cultural authenticity. His films on a wide range of social and human issues had great appeal to the masses. [4]

We live in an age where stars are celebrated simply for being stars and people are famous for simply being famous. With such social afflictions, is it any wonder that kitsch has captured the market while art is ailing?

Indeed, even the names of his films had an artistic or even poetic quality to them. Whether it is Aapadbandhavudu or Sruthilayalu or Siri Siri Muvva or Swaraabhishekam, his mellifluous movie titles stand in stark contrast to the crass anglicised appellations that have since dominated the industry in descending decades.

Swarabhishekam

For the arts to revive and prosper, not only kalaanidhis but veritable kalaatapasvis and tapasvinis are required. The 2016 Dadasaheb Phalke Award winner is one such.

An ardent art lover, he made a series of films based on varied themes of art, music and dance. His films empathised with courage and frailty, aspirations and convictions, perseverance and distractions, social demands and individual struggle and at the core, believed in the goodness of the human spirit. [4]

Above all, in a vulgar age which fails to understand what real culture is, this cultural exemplar give us scenes rebuking the poseurs and providing the true meaning for samskruthi and natya.

In an industry that has come to be known for its stars dominating the movie marquees, he stood for stories weaving together the talent into an integral celluloid whole.

Achievements

From Siri Siri Muvva to Sirivennala, there is an endless list of quality contributions to Andhra and indeed Indic Cinema by Kasinathuni Viswanath. But if one film stands out, it is Sankarabharanam.

From the electrifying vocals of S.P. to the iconising of Saastriya Sangeeta to the story itself, Sankarabharanam was a modern masterpiece. Of course, who could forget the contributions of composer K.V. Mahadevan. Nevertheless, it was K.Viswanath who brought them all together in one musical magnum opus. Indeed, many even assert that the movie was responsible for increasing interest in Carnatic Music among a generation of South Indians.

It is not for nothing he has been nicknamed Kalaa Tapasvi.

 Renowned filmmaker and actor Kasinadhuni Viswanath, best known for his award-winning movies in Telugu, Tamil and Hindi, has won the Dadasaheb Phalke award for the year 2016 for his outstanding contribution to the film industry. [1]

To receive the Phalke Award is a laudable and sought out distinction for any filmmaker or artiste. To date, 6 Telugus have received it, with  B. Narasimha Reddi, B. Nagi Reddi Paidi Jairaj, L.V.Prasad, Akkineni Nageswara Rao in 1990 and D.Rama Naidu in 2009  being the previous awardees.

But despite working with mass stars like Megastar Chiranjeevi and Kamal Haasan, K.Viswanath garu is a screen legend in his own right. Celebrated and known North and South of the Vindhyas, this Andhra ratna already has a long list of awards and achievements.

  • Honorary Doctorate from Potti Sriramulu Telugu University
  • Ragupathy Venkaiah Award for Lifetime Contribution to Cinema from AP
  • Recognised with 20 Nandi Awards from the State of Andhra Pradesh
  • Received 5 National Awards and 10 Filmfare Awards
  • Won the National award for Swati Mutyam. This was India’s Official entry for the 1987 Oscars Foreign Films Category.
  • Awarded the Padma Sri in 1992 for contributions to cinema

Legacy

KViswaLegacy

Viswanath garu leaves behind an outstanding body of work that would be feted in any era. If ‘Simplicity truly is the Ultimate Sophistication‘, he embodied this in films.

The stories that Shri K Viswanath told through his films were seemingly simple. They provided an uncomplicated, direct and pleasant cinematic experience to the audience. At the same time, they lend themselves to a nuanced and layered interpretation leading many to watch them again and again and come back and discover a new hitherto unseen aspect or a have deeper understanding and realization. [4]

Movies like Saptapadi show precisely the type of introspection any society requires and the balance needed between duty and human dignity. He exemplifies the type of attitude spiritual and artistic elites require: rather than distant reservation and condescending mockery, an empathetic championing of the masses and an upliftment of their plight is what is needed.

Prathi cinema ki oka sandesam undedhi. There would be a social message in virtually all his films, proving the true potential of Indian Cinema. It is not in item dance or idiot fan followings or foreign flesh shows, but in movies that marry culture with sentiment in contemporary context. This is what represents not only state but national cinema as well.

Named for the Maharashtrian Director-Producer Dadasaheb Phalke—the famous filmmaker of what’s considered India’s first Movie (Raja Harishchandra)—this National Award is coveted across Bharat’s various cinematic industries.

The award is conferred by the Government of India for outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema. The award consists of a Swarn Kamal (Golden Lotus), a cash prize of Rs 10 lakh and a shawl. The award shall be conferred by the President of India at a function on May 3 at Vigyan Bhawan. [4]

While at 87 years old, the doyen of the pre-digital cinema era may have been made to wait all too long, it is, as they say, better late than never.

Telugu Cinema has come a long way since the cultural morass of the mid-2000s. Indeed, from Maya Bazaar (now in its 60th year) to Magadheera (and now Baahubali), it has had quite a trip ‘There and Back Again’. If there is filmmaker who embodies the triumph of Art over Kitsch and High Culture for the Masses, it is K.Viswanath garu.

From all of us at ACP, Congratulations, andi! It is a recognition long overdue.

References:

  1. http://www.thehindu.com/entertainment/movies/k-viswanath-wins-dadasaheb-phalke-award-for-2016/article18200164.ece
  2. http://movies.ndtv.com/regional/veteran-filmmaker-and-actor-kasinathuni-viswanath-conferred-dadasaheb-phalke-award-1685466
  3. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0899649/bio?ref_=nm_ov_bio_sm
  4. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/kasinadhuni-vishwanath-dadasaheb-phalke-award/1/936966.html
  5. http://www.deccanchronicle.com/entertainment/tollywood/250417/legendary-kalathapasvi-viswanath-gets-dadasaheb-phalke-award-for-2016.html
  6. http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/true-artists-dont-need-fame/article7455680.ece
  7. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/phalke-award-for-viswanath/article18202634.ece

Carnatic Classical Instruments: Veena

veena

Introduction

From very early times Andhras had a special aptitude for music. They did much in times of yore to develop that art (gaanakalaa) and contributed a special raga called Andhree after their own name to the series of musical notes. This fact is known from a treatise on Music named Brhaddesi written by Matanga muni. The author states in his work that in the opinion of Saardula Maatava-pancama has six raagainis of which Andhri was one. [4, 418]

To date, Andhra Cultural Portal has focused primarily on the many brilliant Andhra Composers and singers. Specific names include Annamaya, Thyagaraja, Narayana Theertha, and of course, the recently deceased Dr. Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna (who will be sorely missed).

Nevertheless, another critical aspect of the Carnatic tradition is its instruments. Indeed, instrumentals are, today, more important than ever in reaching out to “modern/post-modern” youth who are alienated from their roots. Carnatic music may seem regimented and orthodox, but as Balamurali garu proved, it can certainly keep up with the times. Indeed, the greatness of it is that while not all who are trained in other traditions can do what Carnatic virtuosos can, even the average Carnatic performer can do what other traditions can. As such, understanding the role instrumentation plays is key.

Seven chapters (28-34) of the Natya Sastra deal with music. Bharata muni discusses both aatoodya (instrumental) and gaana (vocal) music. [2, 106] While the voice is the most personal of musical instruments, Classical Indic music hosts a panoply of percussion, strings, and woodwinds alike.

The Musical instrument (Aattodya or Vaadya) [2,110] in Carnatic music is of four kinds: Thatha vaadyam, Sushira vaadyam, Avanatta vaadyam, and Ghana vaadyam. “They are respectively called stringed instruments, thulai (hole) instruments, leather instruments and metal instruments.”[1, 97]

Thatha (stringed) instruments are generally made out of wooden pieces or chips and joined together with strings made of copper and similar materials. They are played by nail or other such devices. Instruments such as the Veena fall into this category. The Veena in particular can be played with three different techniques: tattva, anugatha, and oogha. “In tattva, the instrument is played mainly to denote the rhythm, the time-measure etc. of a particular song. In anugata, the instrument is played to follow the tempo of the song. In oogha, the instrument is played to embellish the song with no particular significance attached to it.” [2, ]

rudravina
Rudraveena.org

Sushira (thulai)instruments wind instruments and typically are made either out of wood or bamboo planks. They have holes, are blown from the mouth, and manipulated with the fingers. Instruments such as the flute (murali or vamsee) fall into this category. “Depending on the number of quartertones, the notes of this instrument are of three varieties—dvika or two, trike or three and catushka or four. The same are respectively known as ardhamukta or half open, kampamaana or pulsating, and vyakta mukta or fully open.”[2,110-111]

Avanatta (leather) instruments refers to percussion. “These are made out of wood and tied with leather. They can be played by the hand or small sticks.” [1, 97] These drums are usually hollow instruments with leather coverings on one or both sides.Silt and wheat/barley flour are used to fill in order to ensure consonance with the main note.

Ghana (metal) instruments are generally made out of bronze. These are commonly called cymbals and referred to as thaala (within the tradition). This is because they are used to measure time in a musical session.

The division for instruments are as follows:

Sruthi instruments: Tambura (Thatha)-Otthu (Sushira), Sruti box (Sushira)

Sangeetha Instruments: Veena (Thatha), Gottu (Thatha), Flute (Sushira), Nadaswaram (Sushira), Jalatarangam (“Water is poured in porcelain cups and then played by stick”). [1, 97]

Laya Instruments: Mridangam (Avanatta), Thavul (Avanatta), Keethu (Thatha), Moorsing (Ghana), Kanjira (Avanatta), Ghatam (Mud pot), Jalar (Gana-Bronze)” [1,97]

There are of course other instruments in use today, such as the violin and the harmonium. While their inclusion shows the versatility of Carnatic,  these are not traditional, and thus, are not considered for the purposes of this collection of articles.

We begin this Series with an instrument that has long been denied its due. Indeed, Classical Indic Taste has been pushed aside for parvenus. No more. It is time to restore the traditional place of one of Indian Music’s most magnificent contributions: The Veena.

History

veena-statue
Meenakshi Madurai Temple

The Veena is verily the classical of all classical Indian instruments.  It is one of three main vaadyaas first mentioned in Vedic literature, notably the Rig and Sama Vedas. The origin of all musical instruments is told by Bharata muni himself:

Sage svaati went to a lake to fetch water on a holiday when it rained heavily. The torrents of rain fast as wind, falling on the lotus leaves in the waters of the lake, excited the birds which produced inexplicable sweet sounds. Svaati was astonished at the rich melodious sounds made by the falling water drops and the low, the medium and the high notes produced by the birds. He went back to his hermitage and pondered over the possibility of producing musical instruments incorporating these sounds. He sough the assistance of viSvakarma, the celestial architect, and constructed various drums including mridanga, paNava and dardura.”[2, 111]

Maharishi Svaati then created the various instruments and crafted them with strings, wood, and iron. Percussion instruments in particular are mentioned. The famed divine drum dundubhi, along with others such as the tripushkara (mridanga, paNava and dardura) which are major instruments,  as well as the jhallari and paTahi (minor instruments) are mentioned.[2, 112]

220px-Saraswati

One who plays the veena is known as a vainika/vainikaa. There have been many a talented Vainika in Purana and Charitra. The Veena, of course is most identified with two deities in the Hindu pantheon. The first and foremost, is the Goddess of Knowledge, Sarasvati Devi. Invoked throughout auspicious educational occasions, she is in many ways, the patron deity of music itself. It is not for nothing the most famous Veena is her namesake. After all, she is called Veena Pustaka Dharini.

Next of course is Mahadev himself. Lord Shiva is famed as a dancer and a destroyer and a wielder of the damaroo. Nevertheless, he is credited with the creation and mastery of another instrument, which fittingly bears his majestic name.

Narada muni-He is always seen with his veena, known as Mahathi, praising Lord Vishnu with his keerthanas.

Maharishi Agasthya-The great Saptarishi was an exponent of the veena and famously had a competition with Ravana (whose flag featured the veena). [9]

These of course, are sacred figures from our Puranas. But human history proper itself lists many talented veena players. Sculptures throughout India mark the centrality of the Veena, whose traditional role, ostensibly, has been usurped by the violin.

Siddhartha Gautama-“The Buddha reinforced his teachings with music from his Veena known as Parivadhini. It had twenty-one strings made of gold (Swarna Sutra).” [8]

Perhaps most celebrated of all, is the famed Emperor Samudra Gupta. He whose shadows cast their sway from Valhika to Varanasi and Kashmir to Kanyakumari was undoubtedly a most masculine of royals. And yet, he conquered Bharatavarsha with vaana (bow) in one hand and veena (lute) in the other.

220px-Samudracoin1800px-samudraguptacoin

Maharajadiraja Samudra Gupta with veena & vaana

Moving on into the medieval period, we find many accomplished performers and even rulers.

Purandara Dasa-The Pitamaha of Carnatic music was also a vainika in his own right. His successors in turn would follow in his footsteps as vainika-gayakas.

Raghavendra Swami-The patron Saint of Mantralayam was divinely inspired by Veena music, and used it in his own compositions.

Thyagaraja-Saint Tyagaraja brings out with all lyrical beauty and brilliance about the importance of this divine instrument in his song Mokshamu Galada!

vINA vAdana loludau Sivamano
 
vidha merugaru, thyAgarAja vinutha
 (Meaning)
 Is salvation obtainable to those who are not able to perceive the mind of Shiva who derives indescribable pleasure from listening to the divine music of Vina!” [3, 2]

Syama Sastri

 http://www.andhraportal.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/1985-shyama_sastri.jpg

Muthuswamy Deeksithaar

Veena Kupayya-A student of Thyagaraja. He composed many krithis featuring the veena.

Culture and Competence (in manhood or otherwise) go hand-in-hand and are not antipodal. The days of the popinjay oversophisticates and the rustic barbarian must be set aside.

It is possible to be both strategically serious and sophisticated in song and the other arts. The great King Bhoja was a sishya of Sarada and Skanda alike. We need not be alienated from our roots and artistic endeavours in order to tackle the modern world.

Indeed, there is a veena for every occasion. Here are some of its many types.

Types

Govinda Dikshitar of the Tanjavur court first constructed a veena with 24 fixed frets, 12 for each octave. This was a key factor in the development of the system of 72 melakarta ragas.” [6] He is considered the originator of the Sarasvathi Veena in its current form. Nevertheless, the Veena obviously has a far greater antiquity (and variety). There were at one point as many as 25 different kinds of veenas. Kanakaveena or brahma veena may very well be the origin of them all.  In fact, Palkurki Somanatha, famed Telugu Poet of the Kakatiya era,  in his poem Panditharaadhya Charitramu gives us 41 [6]:

1. VEENOTTAMAMU 2. BRAHMA VEENA 3. KAILASA VEENA 4. SARANGA VEENA 

5. KOORMA VEENA 6. AAKASHA VEENA 7. PINAAKA VEENA 8. RAAVANA VEENA 

9. GAURI VEENA 10. GANDHARVA VEENA 11. BANA VEENA 12. KASYAPA VEENA 

13. SWAYAMBHOO VEENA 14. BHUJANGA VEENA 15. BHOJA VEENA 

16. KINNARA VEENA 17. TRINARI VEENA 18. SARASWATI VEENA 19. MOLLI VEENA 

20. MANORADHA VEENA 21. GANANADHA VEENA 22. KAUMARA VEENA 23. ANIVANI 

24. RAVANA HASTAM 25. TIPIRI 26. SAKANEY 27. VALI 28. VICHITRAKA 29. NATA 

30. SAGARIKA 31. KUMBHAKA 32. VIPANCHIKA 33. SARA VEENA 34. PARIVAADI 

35. MALLARI 36. KOLAASHTI 37. SWARAMANDALAM 38. GHOSHAVATI 

39. AUDUMBARAM 40. TANTRI SAAGARAM 41. AMBUJA VEENA. 

Here is a listing of the ones that are prevalent in the present time.

rudra-veena

Rudra veena-Undoubtedly the most august and masculine of all the Indian lutes, the Rudra Veena commands respect even today.  Legend has it that Lord Shiva was inspired to construct it when he caught glimpse of Parvathi Devi taking rest. Struck by her beauty, the Rudra Veena was the result of the saundharya of this most Divine of muses.

 

sarasvati-veena

Sarasvathi veena-The Sarasvathi veena is the most iconic of all the varieties. The very mention of the word Veena brings to mind this image. While the current form is traced to The Thanjavur Nayak court, it is in fact more ancient. Its measurements and structure are considered the standard.

Brahma Veena-The Veena of Lord Brahma, which helps facilitate his creation of the universe.

vichitra-vina

Vichitra Veena-Commonly used in the Hindustani style of music. A veena of seven strings (played with the fingernails). Does not have any frets.

Ghoshavathee Veena-Thought to be the predecessor to the comparatively recent Vichitra Veena.

Vipanchee-A  Veena of nine strings. Has 6 karanas (roopa, pratikrita, pratibheed, roopa sesha, oogha and pratisushka). It is played with a plectrum.

Tritantri Veena-It is often said that the Sitar is merely a renamed and re-tuned Tritantri. It is called so for the 3 strings that it has.

Saradiya Veena-This instrument is now called a Sarod, and has carved its own name in the Hindustani music world.

a_mohan_veena_string_musical_instruments_of_india

Mohana Veena-Considered to alternately be a modification of the Sarod and guitar. As such has two variations.

220px-yaaz

Yaal (Yazh)-Commonly used in Tamizh Nadu and considered an ancestor of the Veena.

Mahathi Veena-the Veena of choice of Narada Muni.

bobbiliveenaBobbili Veena-Today seen more as a toy than an august instrument of music, the Bobbili veena has nonetheless carved out its own name in the world of crafts. In fact, it historically had a golden age under the Rajas of Bobbili, and the instrument was a serious one for musical performances in the small kingdom. It was frequently given as a gift, and as most of the pre-modern varieties, was often gilded.

Characteristics

Although there are numerous variations of the veena, the structure is generally the same. Number of strings aside, the Veena typically has a head (called a kuppam), 24 frets, with 4 strings (representing Chaturveda and also Purushartha), and 3 on the side (called thaala strings). The latter are said to represent Iccha Shakti, Jnana Shakti, and Kriya Shakti. [3,4]

The 24 frets represent 12 swarasthanas in two octaves (24). Just like the 24 frets of the Veena, human back bone has 24 divisions. According to the human anatomy, the back bone has 7 cervicles (7 strings), 12 thorasic (representing the 12 swara sthanas) and 5 lumbar vertebrae (representing the 5 notes R, G, M, D,N –S and P are not included as they are prakrithi swaras or natural notes). The 24 frets get their importance by the nada produced from them. [3,4]
manushiveena
“Veena is of two kinds – Deiveeka Veena and Maanushi Veena (Man made Veena).
The human body created by God is the ‘deiveeka veena’.
 
The veena made out of wood by human beings is called as the ‘maanushi veena’.
 
Both these Veena are made and intended to produce the divine Nada or Music.”[3. 3]
Plucking of the strings is called meetu. There are  16 varieties of this.
Due to this divine nature, the Veena is said to facilitate vocal training as well. Singing along with veena is a form of Naada yoga (Yoga of Sound). If that is the case, manufacture of the veena is another type of yoga as well.

The best veenas are made from a single block of wood, typically jackwood. These are the instruments that stand the test of time and become veritable heirlooms in eminent families, as in the Royal Family of Mysuru. They may very depending on region and taste.

Process

The veena is most often constructed in 3 parts. Though made from a single piece of jackfruit wood (called panasa), it consists of a head, a neck, and a resonator. A stabiliser (thumba) is made from hollow pumpkin. The wood itself is lacquered after carving and construction.

The fret board is hollow, and generally includes 24 brass frets. These are set on black honey wax and wooden tracks. A soft black coal powder is used to give it colour.

making-veena

The strings themselves are usually brass.

The Thanjavur variety is typically 4 feet in length. Due to lack of patronage, there are less than 100 artisans in that craft today. In Bobbili it is around 30 families. These artisans, and the pandits preserving the traditional knowedge, require patronage, once given by feudal nayaks. The established business families of this era have a responsibility to fill this void.

Legacy

rudras-veena

Veena is the Divine Instrument. Verily, it represents the concept of Moksha through music.

From Lord Shiva and the Rudra Veena to APJ Abdul Kalam and the Sarasvathi Veena, this instrument has captured the imagination of ancient and modern India alike.

Veena is our national instrument. It is a treasure. [5]

Famous Players

A viiNaa player must be untiring and must be an expert in handling the citraa tupe of viiNaa. A flute player must be physically strong, steady and must have long breath” [2,115] And yet, despite these demands, Veena players (and vamsee players for that matter) have run the gamut. Some are of course established expert performers in Carnatic Classical or Hindustani. And others are perhaps better known in other areas (such as our own Yamini Purnatilaka garu), and yet, are accomplished artistes in this most divine of instruments, nonetheless.

Venkataramanadas

Emani Sankara Sastry

Chitti Babu

Yamini Krishnamurti

Sundaram Balachander

R.Venkataraghavan

Asad Ali Khan

Doraiswamy Iyengar

Brahm Sarup Singh

TN Seshagopalan

Jayanti Kumaresh

Punya Srinivas

Future

The future of the veena is at a crossroads. Rootlessness among metro youth and adults alike have reduced interest in traditional heritage as it is. The violin’s usurpation of the veena’s traditional place as primary vocal accompaniment has exacerbated matters.

While there are veena virtuosos even today, it will require collaborative efforts with an eye on modern dynamics to restore this cultural treasure to its rightful place. It will require some effort from current connoisseurs and some adjustment from traditionalists. Not only should instrumentals be promoted but even fusion efforts given due credit.

Fusion

To be fair, there have been general attempts outside of fusion to promote the veena. But these have been isolated. To restore Rudra’s vaadya to its proper place will require not only comprehensive and cooperative efforts across a state or many states, but also some tough decisions about current musical accompaniment.

rudraveena-movie
More movies like this Chiranjeevi garu

The violin is a beautiful instrument, and credit to the European classical tradition for evolving it. Yet, it is possible to appreciate the foreign while preserving our own. Perhaps the best service stalwarts of Carnatic can do today is to encourage the reintroduction of the veena as the mainstay in katcheris, and even in less formal performances. The Rudra veena and the Sarasvathi veena (in its most popular measurement) may indeed be difficult to transport (as part of a troupe) for our peregrinatious performers of the post-modern period. Nevertheless, a suitable veena should be decided upon and encouraged to take the place of violin.

Violin invariably will continue in the forseeable future, and one does not wish to discourage those talented Carnatic performers who have devoted their lives to this delightful instrument. They should continue to perform with patronage & certainly  demand for “fusion” only continues to expand. But tradition is tradition. While the artistic spirit of musical experimentation should be encouraged, the integral core must be preserved.

Incipient steps must be taken to restore our National Instrument to its rightful place. Sarasvathi herself would expect nothing less for her namesake.

Saa Me Vasatu Jivhagre Veena Pusthaka Dharini
 -May Goddess Saraswathi, holding the Veena and the Vedas, always reside in my tongue. [3,8]

References:

  1. Iyer, A.S. Panchapakesa.Karnataka Sangeeta Sastra: Theory of Carnatic Music.
  2. Appa Rao, P.S.R & P. Sri Rama Sastry. A Monography on Bharata’s Natya Sastra. Hyderabad: Natyakala Press. 1967.P.110-112
  3. Mahesh, Anuradha. Shanmukhapriya School of Music. 2016 https://www.scribd.com/document/305207642/Veena-the-Divine-Instrument
  4. Somasekhara
  5. http://www.thehindu.com/chennai-margazhi-season/nirmala-rajasekars-mission-is-to-keep-the-veena-flag-flying-across-the-globe/article6735447.ece?widget-art=four-rel
  6. http://www.theveena.com/veena/
  7. http://www.forbesindia.com/article/recliner/the-last-notes-of-the-thanjavur-veena/32670/1
  8. http://www.jayanthikumaresh.com/about-the-veena/
  9. http://www.gklokam.com/2015/10/important-instrument-player-exams.html
  10. Divekar, Hindraj. Rudra Veena: An Ancient String Musical Instrument. New Delhi: DPH. 2001
  11. Dutta, Madhurima.Let’s Know Music and Musical Instruments of India. New Delhi: IBS books. 2008
  12. http://www.firstpost.com/living/thanjavur-veena-to-be-first-indian-instrument-to-get-made-in-thanjavur-tag-545793.html
  13. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/Melody-of-Bobbili-Veena-dying-out/articleshow/47451422.cms
  14. http://gaatha.com/bobbili-veena/

Personalities: Savithri

savithri

From Mahanari Savitri over at ICP, we go to Mahanati Savithri here at ACP.  After a long hiatus from phillims, we return to the Cinema star who started it all.

A legendary woman in her own right who needs no introduction to the Telugu people, our next Personality in our Continuing Series is the original doyenne of Telugu Cinema. She stood astride the southern film industries like a female colossus, and remains to this day, our most universally beloved actress. It may be hard to imagine a time before Sridevi in the cinema of the South, but the original Missamma was the Amma to all actresses since.

Background

Known by many names and given many titles, Savithri  Kommareddy was born Nissankararao, Savithri in the Andhra region of the erstwhile Madras Presidency, in 1936. Her natal place was Chiravurru, Guntur District. She lost her father, Guravayya, at the tender age of 6 months, causing her mother, Subhadramma, to take her and her elder sister Maruti to live with their aunt. She thenceforth grew up in Vijayawada.

Early on, she demonstrated a talent for dance, and her uncle enrolled her in classical dance and music classes.She was instructed by Guru Sishtla, Purnayya Sastry. After only a year, she excelled under his guidance, and he recognised and praised her talent.

It took less than a year under his tutelage for Savithri to become a skilled dancer.  Almost all the dances she learned involved the stories from the Puranas. [6]

At age 11, she joined a theatre troupe (Arunodaya Natya Mandali) and performed all across the coastal region. After this, her family decided to take her to Chennai (then Madras), to try to make her a star. It was said that Savithri’s favourite actor was Akkineni, Nageswara Rao, and she tried to catch glimpses of him. Although initially cast alongside him for the film Samsaaram (1950), the role later went to Lakshmi Kanthamma. As fate would have it, Savithri would later star as his love interest in the all-time classic Maya Bazaar.

Nevertheless, Savithri proceeded with her career and was cast as a vamp in the movie Roopvati, and then danced in the movie Paathaala Bhairavi. It was 1952, however, that proved to be a banner year for her. She consecutively featured in Sankranthi, Palleturi Pilla (her first as the lead heroine), and Devadasu. She also was cast in a Hindi movie Bahut Din Hue and a Tamizh film Manampol Mangalyam. Originally Bhanumati was cast in Missamma, but due to differences with the producer, she left, and Savithri was cast in the title role. It would prove to be a career-defining, and indeed, industry defining part for her.

Savithri was also making an impact in Kollywood. Beyond the Tamizh version of Missamma, she was also seen in Kanyasulkam and many other movies. It was on the set of Missiamma, however, that the closeness between her and Gemini Ganesan was noticed. The entire South would eventually be blindsided when it found out Savithri secretly married Ganesan in 1952 itself. That year was a banner one in more ways than one. Interestingly, there is an anecdote wherein GG came across a star-struck Savithri. He is said to have recommended her in 1948, when she visited Gemini Studios with her mother. Ganesan apparently wrote on her picture that she was promising, if given an opportunity.

If 1952 was a banner year, 1956  was a roller coaster. She starred in numerous films (‘Appu Chesi Pappu Koodu’, ‘Mangalya Balam’, ‘Bhale Ammayilu’, ‘Thodi Kodallu’, ‘Gundamma Katha’)and received many awards. But she and the already much-married, many-fathering Gemini Ganesan finally went public about their marriage. She would give birth to a daughter that year as well. She would later have their son.

1957 represented the highwater mark, with the industry-defining Maya Bazaar. It was a movie that was Epic in every sense of the word, and would truly cement Savithri’s star on the proverbial walk of fame. From girlish glee, to feminine cleverness, to moonstruck loveliness, Savithri shone in this role like the chandamama in the song Lahiri Lahiri.

After 1963’s Narthanasala, Savithri went on to other roles. She was still making films throughout the 70s (especially in Tamizh), but began producing and directing as well. One of her movies took 5 years to produce, and is attributed to causing later monetary issues.

Despite her glistening career, fame, and fortune, Savithri died at the young age of 46. The long-suffering woman of Gundamma Katha had decided she had suffered Gemini Ganesan’s affairs long enough and walked out of the marriage. A generous person by her nature, she was defrauded by the many sycophants and parasites who had set up court around her. These same folk would abandon her later in life when she was in financial troubles.

Her biographical accounts make reference to how she drowned her sorrows in drink. Whether it was a disease or not that claimed her life at the young age of 46, it was clear that she really died of a broken heart in 1981. She had married the wrong man, trusted the wrong people, and lived out the remainder of her life in Bangalorean loneliness.

With a life-story fit for a screenplay tragedy, Savithri nevertheless set the benchmark for all actresses since. Despite her comparatively shorter life, what she achieved in cinema has yet to be exceeded, nor is likely to be. She was the first true female super-star, but more importantly, she was a truly theatre-trained talent who brought her myriad talents to the screen. As she was in her childhood drama troupe so she was in peak of life, the crowd-puller and centre of attention.

But a life such as hers should be celebrated rather than mourned. What were her achievements in reel life and real life?

Achievements

From Maya Bazaar, to Missamma, to Gundamma Katha and beyond, the impact of Savithri on the silver screen in Andhra Golden age of cinema is hard to minimise. She was the original grande dame of Telugu Cinema.

She brought a subtlety, a delicacy, and lovability, and a gravitas which is rare to detect in actors of any era (let alone this one). She remains the benchmark against which all serious actresses weigh their performances. Sridevi remains the quintessential complete actress, but Savithri is the naati who brought true Nataka in its highest form, to mass cinema.

Despite the celebrated greatness of Maya Bazaar, Savithri will forever be remembered for her title role as Missamma.

Savitri was a multi-faceted genius. She was not only an actress, but also a director, producer and writer [5]

Missamma was the role that defined her career, and in many ways, her life.  She was the cultured girl in a post-Independence India, who still managed to be modern…on her own terms. She managed to demonstrate that empowerment means more than slick youtube videos or prurient and shrill protests. Rather, true empowerment was strong will, and living a meaningful life.

From starring roles at an early age to gender-empowering parts at the height of stardom, Savithri was a pioneer in Telugu Cinema. This Guntur girl managed to achieve fame in a number of industries beyond her native Andhra, and was cast in Tamizh, Hindi, Malayalam, and Kannada cinema as well. She had completed her conquest of the South and had made forays in the North.

Credited with 253 films. At one point she was making a film a month!

Savithri made such an impression on the minds of film-makers, that this actress who dominated the 50s and 60s was still appearing in films (posthumously) in the mid-80s!

She received numerous awards over the course of her illustrious career. From Filmfare to Rashtrapati to Nandi, she was no stranger to the coveted accolades of her profession.

But as is the case with so many of the luminaries of Andhra, from Balamurali Krishna to Vempati Chinna Satyam to P.Suseela, “Had she been born in other States, she would have earned much more name than what she had gained“. [5]

Rather than doing nothing and blaming people for the state of their culture, perhaps its time this state’s  public take responsibility and start investing in institutions that promote culture and promote cultural icons like Savithri who became veritable institutions.

Legacy

Nata Siromani, Kalaimamani and Nadigayar Thilakam, Mahanati Savitri has to her credit several Filmfare awards, Rashtrapati award for ‘Chivaraku Migiledi’ and a permanent place in the hearts of people.

Savithri was the original lady screen legend of the Telugu Film Industry. She cast a wide shadow over the South, and appropriately, was the natural choice to even play her Missamma role in Tamizh. gundammakatha

Gundamma Katha was another film that was a milestone. Irrespective of the original quiet nature of her character, Savithri is practically enjoying this scene below, and the crass cat-fight that ensues. Indeed, we see how her character, Lakshmi, has become an assertive (rather than a passive or aggressive) woman, who remains cultured, but capable of defending herself and others.

Almost as interesting as the variegated roles she played on screen, was Savithri’s life off-screen. She has been the subject of many books: ‘Mahanati Savitri Venditera Samragni by Pallavi, ‘A Legendary Actress Mahanati Savitri’ by VR Murthy and  ‘Savitri Jeevita Charitra’ by GVG. The latest is ‘Venditera Vishadaraagaalu’ by Pasupuleti, Ramarao.

Pop culture has itself been no stranger to celebrating the life and legacy of Mahanati Savithri. In fact, there has been recent news that a silver screen biopic is slated for production, starring Nithya Menon.

There is even a Mahanati Savitri Sahitya, Samskrutika Kalapeetham Sankshema Sangham that celebrates her life and commemorates her occasions. Her daughter is seen here, paying tribute to her mother’s life.

She is like sandalwood that spreads fragrance all around; she is like a piece of camphor that fearlessly glows in the darkness of night – said Jnanpith Awardee, eminent writer Ravuri Bharadwaj.[2]

She had the grace of the all-enduring Indian woman, but with the cool and quietly burning Shakti of a Rani, that could burn hot when required. Perhaps no role better embodied her range than Gundamma Katha, where she did precisely that. The Bharatiya Naari, like Savithri, is not someone to be take for granted!

Truly, with the career and contribution of Mahanati Savithri, nidra leychindi mahilaa lokam.

References:

  1. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0767800/
  2. http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/2013-12-22/Drama-in-real-life-80115
  3. http://www.cinejosh.com/news/3/36972/differences-between-savitri-and-sridevi.html
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/mahanati-savitri-remembered/article8033877.ece
  5. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/glowing-tributes-paid-to-legendary-actor-savitri/article6730098.ece
  6. http://www.savithri.info

Personalities: Sobha Naidu

ShobhaNaidu

Completing our tour of Dance over the past few weeks is a modern artiste who has been described as “Elegance personified”. A Natyacharyaa in her own right, she is a doyenne of dance and a treasure of the Andhras.

The topic of our next installment in the Continuing Series on Andhra Personalities is none other than the masterful and beautiful danseuse, Srimati Sobha Naidu.

Background

sobhanaidu

Sobha Naidu gaaru’s story begins in the sleepy town of Anakapalli, Andhra Pradesh (in Visakhapatnam district). She was born into a culturally conservative yet professionally progressive family. Her engineer father, Venkanna Naidu, wished for her to become a medical doctor. [2] However, young Sobha was destined for dance, and passionately sought it out. Her mother, Sarojini Devi, sensed her talent, and despite familial objections, obtained lessons for her under dance instructor P.L. Reddy, at Rajamahendravaram.

Her talent only blossomed from there, and she eventually studied Kuchipudi under the legendary exponent and maestro, Sri Vempati Chinna Satyam gaaru.

Kuchipudi is a cultural heritage of Andhra Pradesh. Being a Telugu girl, it is but natural that I get a feeling that I should propagate this art in my own way. [2]

For twelve years she studied this classical dance under the rigourous standards and guidance of its greatest and most progressive reviver. It was, after all, Vempati gaaru who fully implemented Vedantam Lakshminarayana gaaru’s policy of opening up this dance to women, after 500 years of being under the purview of men.

Along with completing her Kuchipudi studies in Chennai, Sobha Naidu also earned a degree from Queen Mary’s College. Despite marrying and having the obligations of traditional family life, her husband was understanding of her talent and dedication [6], and she has since travelled the world, training over 2,000 students. In fact, the greatest concentration of her most devoted students can be found in the United States and Russia.

As a Natyakarini, she is perhaps best known for her performance as Satyabhama, but she has come to define the element of Strong women in general. Other than Sri Krishna Parijatham and her second most famous ballet called Bhamakalapam, again as Satyabhama, she performed as aspects of the Devi in the Navarasa Natabhamini, in the 2011 Nrityotsav. [4]

Achievements

Celebrated for her agility, her fluidity of movement, and her exceptional grace, [2] Sobha Naidu is considered the Atiloka Acharyaa of Abhinaya.

Having learned from the illustrious Sri Vempati Chinna Satyam, the famous Natyacharya of Kuchipudi, Sobha gaaru has become a Natyacharyaa (extended aa for female teacher)  herself. She climbed to such heights as a Narthaki, that the great Bharatanatyam guru, Vazhuvoor Ramaiah Pillai, offered to teach her the style free of cost. She respectfully refused, noting that despite her admiration of Bharatanatyam, her whole life would need to be dedicated to properly master Kuchipudi. Although she has performed for decades, she remains active to this day, her most recent performance being in 2015.

  • Credited with 80 solo numbers and 15 ballets as choreographer [3]
  • Has performed all over India and around the world
  • Honoured with the Kala Saraswathi-Andhra Ratna Award by the AP Kalavedika
  • Recipient of the title of “Nritya Choodamani” by  Krishna Gana Sabha of Chennai
  • Award from the Central Sangeeta Nataka Kala Academy in 1991
  • Received “Nrityavihar” given by Sri Sringara Samsad of Bombay
  • Granted the Hamsa Award and N.T.Rama Rao Award by the State Government of Andhra Pradesh
  • Honoured by Telugu University with “Telugu Puraskara” Award
  • Established the now 30 year old Kuchipudi Art Academy of Hyderabad
  • She has trained more than 1500 students from India and abroad
  • Awarded the Padma Sri in 2001 by the Government of India

She has been acknowledged as an outstanding dancer with a great gift for nritta, natya and abhinaya; a brilliant choreographer and a highly successful teacher. [3]

Legacy

“Dance is the Hidden Language of the Soul”

The Legacy of Smt. Sobha Naidu is one that defines the era since Yamini Krishnamurti, whom she admires. While the latter was an exponent of both Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi, Sobhi Naidu focused on the Andhra dance alone, purely for its Abhinaya. She has become as associated with it as Jaya Senapati was with Nrtta. Much like the elegant and stylish Satyabhama (warrior queen and wife of Sri Krishna), Sobha gaaru has come to define elegance in the world of dance.

Satyabhama&KrishnaIn fact, she famously was captivated by this strong and fashionable character from the Mahabharata, and longed to play her. She achieved this dream in Vempati gaaru’s Sri Krishna Parijatham, and became synonymous with Satyabhama and Kuchipudi, developing into the doyenne of dance we know today.

 Sobha Naidu as Satyabhama in Sri Krishna Parijatam

According to her, states like Tamil Nadu and Kerala lead the way in giving patronage to dancers and other artistes. While Andhra Pradesh does give some support, she believes it must do much more in order to revive the traditional and High Arts. The obligation is double for the people and business elites, who of late, seem more enraptured by bollywood and hollywood culture, than their own.

Indeed, she has bemoaned the fact that although there are audiences for classical dance, performers and patrons alike continue to gravitate towards pop culture films. She hopes that those with wealth will take on the obligation of preserving our common culture so that it can be passed on to youth. She herself has noted that whatever the current obsession with serials and other drivel, it is inevitable that people will tire of it and return to our illustrious Samskruthi. But it must be there when they are back!

Wise words from Srimati Sobha Naidu gaaru:

People should realise that by being westernised, they are respecting the neighbour’s mother and neglecting their own mother.

As long as electronic media influences the new generation, classical arts will always struggle for survival.

We have such a great heritage and culture that the whole world respects it. We are not able to make out the value of our own culture.  [3]

Therein lies a lesson for our “New Generation” Girls and Guys. It is your culture which gives you respect, not no-class song and dance sequences from kitschy phillims. Even if you do not learn Kuchipudi, learn a lesson from this great danseuse:

Wedded and dedicated to her art, she has rejected lucrative offers from the film industry with a feeling that art should be developed with its Pristine purity .

References:

  1. http://sobhanaidu.org/
  2. http://www.deccanherald.com/content/245521/dancer-difference.html
  3. http://www.hyderabadbest.com/discoverhyd/personalities/dance/Shobhanaidu.asp
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-fridayreview/buoyant-bhama/article3813796.ece
  5. http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/dance/nine-aspects-of-the-goddess/article2533952.ece
  6. Kuchipudi Dancer Shobha Naidu Exclusive Interview.HMTV.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gs1J-XTMhdk