Tag Archives: Politics

Personalities: NTR


Those of you following us on twitter may have been reading our recent tweets on Self-Respect. It is a word that is often used by rowdies for all the wrong movements. But self-respect is something greater than self-glorification. Self-respect is fundamentally about respecting yourself by respecting others. After all, a gentleman behaves properly around ladies (no matter what their character), not because of what it says about them, but because of what it says about him.

One such gentleman was celebrated for not only the characters he portrayed on screen, but the character he showed on the political stage. In fact, our very own Chandra Mohan garu wrote on the topic and the man here. Though we will build upon this theme, we will focus more on the biographical, cinematic, and political aspects of his place in history.

Few men in their lives (and after) can be recalled by the masses with simple initials: NTR is one such man.

While Sri Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao garu may have passed away 2 decades ago, his life and legacy, in cinema and in politics, touches every Telugu to this day.

If any actor ever put the mythos in a mythic career, it was the man who defined it and defined “Mythology” in the minds of the Telugus. That is why he is the topic of today’s installment in our Continuing Series on Andhra Personalities.


Born in the village of Nimmakuru, Krishna District, on May 28, 1923, NTR hailed from an agricultural family of modest economic background.His parents were Venkataramamma and Laxmaiah. Due to the customs of the time, he was adopted by his childless paternal uncle Ramaiah and his wife. After completing class 5, young Rama Rao had to matriculate in Vijayawada to complete primary, and secondary studies. He later enrolled in SRR and CVR colleges. In a twist of fate, his first play was written by the head of the Telugu Department at his College, Kavi Samrat Viswanatha Satyanarayana. The drama was a progressive piece on women’s issues in Rachamalluni Dautyam. In those days, society was very conservative and ladies did not act in plays. The famously masculine ‘man of the masses’ was made to play (reluctantly) the heroine’s role…an experience which would later come in handy in Narthanasala, no doubt!

Nevertheless, the consummate thespian, NTR played the role to perfection and won first prize. This gave him the taste for theatre, which he would later bring to the silver screen.

From his early days of youth itself, he was a breadwinner for the kutumbam, selling milk on his bicycle to help the household make ends meet.

At the age of 20, he married Basava Tarakam. However, he had yet to complete his studies, and thus, had a difficult time succeeding in his examinations, given this new responsibility as a householder. He finally succeeded in passing out of Andhra Christian College in Guntur, with a Bachelor of Arts, in 1945. He also founded the National Art Theatre, a drama group. He later met the famed director L.V.Prasad. This chance meeting was a taste of things to come, and would play a pivotal role in his career.

In the mean time, however, the demands of supporting a family meant that he had to take up a job.  He passed the Madras Service Commission examination and was given a job as sub-registrar. This minor post was not to his liking, and he was stunned upon seeing the open bribery taking place.

Nevertheless, he had cultivated a booming baritone signing voice, and was blessed with good looks and broad shoulders. Deciding to chase his destiny, he quit his job and resolved to make a career in films.

From his first part, a walk-on as a police officer in Mana Desam (1949), for which he was paid 500 rupees (today about pounds 10 sterling), he became one of the cinema-crazed state’s best-known idols. [4]

A mere three weeks into his job, his photo was picked out of L.V.Prasad’s album by B.A.Subba Rao, for the hero’s role in Palleturi Pilla. This would launch the most legendary of all Telugu film careers.


The list of films ,of course, is endless. While Palleturi Pilla was itself a super hit, due in no small part to NTR’s refusal to have a stunt-double for his bull-fighting scene (he was hospitalised after being thrown by it), it was Paathala Bhairavi that would launch him into the stratosphere. So successful was this blockbuster, that it would later be made in other languages.

But, it was Maya Bazaar, of course, that would seal this screen legend’s place in Cinema-dom. Virtually living in the role of Sri Krishna, NTR’s acting here would set a trend of divine performances (pun intended) that would forever mark his place on the psyche of the Telugus. So scintillating was he in these pauranic roles, and so synonymous with these puranic stories, that many village and towns folk would touch his feet in divine association, in a way only seen since for actors of Ramanand Sagar’s Ramayan and B.R. Chopra’s Mahabharat. Such is the power of Cinema—something NTR would leverage for his second career, in his second innings.

Fittingly, and indeed, very politically, his last movie before entering politics in 1982 was Bobbili Puli. It would serve as the ideal segue and launch pad for him into politics. The film released on his Sashtipoorthi (completion of 60 years), with the Telugu Desam Party, the party he founded, marking its formal entry into politics on the same day. He grandly seized power in a landslide election victory in 1983. Though ousted in a coup the following year, he returned quickly with an even greater mandate.

Closer to home, NTR ultimately had six sons and four daughters from his marriage. The most famous of his progeny is of course, the silver screen star Balakrishna (set to appear soon as Gautamiputra Satakarni). However, the son who would have the most impact on him politically would be the one by marriage, who took over the leadership of the Telugu Desam Party. As is notoriously recounted elsewhere, there were family dissensions in the last few years of Rama Rao garu’s life. His first wife passed away in 1984. He remarried, and this time, it was to his erstwhile political biographer, Lakshmi Parvati in the early 1990s. Family politics being what they are, the grown children did not take kindly to the political changes that accompanied the personal changes. Together with NTR’s son Harikrishna, Nara Chandra Babu Naidu took over the leadership effectively in a takeover bid, and would go on to carve out a notable legacy as CM of old & new Andhra Pradesh state.

Without judgment of either side, this turn of events (whether warranted or otherwise) had a traumatic effect on NTR, who felt betrayed. True to his indomitable spirit, he planned a comeback, but Mahakaal had other plans. The celebrated Movie star, State Political leader, and National Political figure had his final innings. He passed away on January 18, 1996, at the age of 72. A lifelong practitioner of yoga, he credited it for his longevity and energy.



The manifold achievements of this man of the masses, have faded with the passage of time. Perhaps it is time we remind the younger generation of why NTR’s name carries so much pull to this day, on both sides of the Polavaram.

His cinematic achievements are obvious, and indeed will be discussed in greater detail later in the Post. If they could be summed up in a phrase, however, it was performing High Culture for the masses. It was theatre on the silver screen that was accessible to educated and illiterate and young and old alike. Indeed, in the early phases of old AP, where there was some mistrust among the three regions of Andhra (Kosta, Rayalaseema, and Telangana), whatever differences cropped up due to history, evaporated when this screen legend appeared as the divine and historical personalities revered by all Telugus alike.

But he was a trend-setter not only in Cinema, but also in politics. The first Rath Yatra was done not by LKA, but by NTR. His ‘Chaitanya Ratham’ would conduct a yatra throughout the state, even finding him a place in the records books, marking 75,000 kms in less than a year.

When he first hit the road with it in 1982, soon after founding the party, the vehicle was an object of ridicule by the Congress. But criss-crossing the length and breadth of the State on the ‘chariot of awakening,’ with the theme song of Telugu self-respect on his lips, he was able to rouse the masses and defeat the ruling Congress. The election was a landmark in the country’s political history, as NTR stormed to power within nine months of founding his party defeating a century-old party.[6]

By the time the elections had come around, this modern Chariot and this modern Andhradesadeeswara managed to rouse popular rebellion against these modern sultans of Delhi. Rather than paeans to the decadent Nehru-Gandhi Netas of Congress, in its place sounded, Maa Telugu Thalli, throughout the state.

For months, the ‘Chaitanya Ratham’ trundled along the lush green paddy fields of coastal Andhra Pradesh, the dry landscape of Rayalaseema and Telangana and through the busy thoroughfares of the towns. “[6]

For those who thought NTR managed to merely “coast” to victory on the back of his celebrity, they clearly missed the lessons on political groundwork he gave them, free of charge. It was this campaign, this ratha yatra that garnered him the popular support and credibility to gain power. It demonstrated, as some recent film stars-turned-politician can attest, that his election was no fluke. But his political achievements go beyond political innovation. Here is a quick recap for readers:

  • In all, he acted in 292 films in a career spanning 33 years between 1949 and 1982. Of these, 274 are in Telugu, 15 in Tamil and three in Hindi.” [3]
  • Awarded the Padma Shri in1968. 3 National Film awards. 1 Nandi Award
  • Was instrumental in shifting the Telugu Film Industry from Madras to Hyderabad. This along with his life-long devotion to his mother tongue helped restore the distinct identity of the Andhras.
  • Pushed for decentralisation of governance through Mandal elections. Began restoring traditional Telugu-Sanskrit terms from colonial Nizam-Persian terms.
  • Took on and crushed the fundamentalists in Old City Hyderabad, making this Capital of Telugus from the Days of Golkonda, safe for all citizens.
  • Introduced mid-day meal programme for children of impoverished families. Later copied in 7 other states.
  • He reserved more university places and expanded primary education for Women.
  • Implemented the Telugu Ganga Project in Rayalaseema, together with support of Sathya Sai Baba, quenched the water thirst in the region.
  • Ended the oppressive Patel-Patwari system of the Nizam era in Telangana
  • After Starring, Directing, and Producing films, also began Screenwriting films. Notably wrote Samrat Ashoka in 1992
  • Adorned the Tankbund with great figures from Telugu History.

What happened to those statues he gave us, today?



The illustrious legacy of NTR remains concrete to most, but nevertheless, controversial to many. A beloved personality, so widely revered by villages and urbanites alike, necessitates historical understanding, objectively.

With any popularly honoured figure, so synonymous with a modern culture, it becomes as important to understand the man beyond the hagiographies and diatribes alike. Political opponents refuse to compliment him and political fanboys…well…commit suicide over him (as one did when he passed away).

Nevertheless, the legacy of NTR to the Telugu land is hard to gainsay. Economically sound or not, his 2 rs/kg rice programme saved thousands upon thousands from starvation. Questions of nepotism aside, he forged a coherent countervailing influence to the corrupt Congress. Snide remarks of parochialism aside, his Telugu atma-gauravam campaign restored self-respect for Telugus at a time when it had reached a low point. Nothing was more emblematic of the sea-change in the Telugu Restoration he initiated in the capital of the Telugus, by enforcing through Law Enforcement, the implementation and protection of Official Telugu signboards in Hyderabad from urdu-language fanatics. Golkonda of the Kakatiya era was the capital of Krishna-Godavari Samskruthi, not the geographically non-native Ganga-jamuni “tehzeeb“.

Above all however, both on screen and off, he reminded Andhras that they were not mere colonised people of the British Raj, but the inheritors of the Empire of Krishna Deva Raya. No man more poignantly and poetically demonstrated the relationship between Art & History, Cinema & Politics. Let us do a retrospective of his roles.


Unlike the self-promoting but culturally barbarous “bollywood” (of modern middle eastern orientation), the Telugu Film Industry has promoted real native Bharatiya Samskruthi in all its glory. This tradition reached its noontide under Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao. While the period that followed his golden years in the Golden Age of Telugu cinema was not altogether free of caste critiques of closed doors, the quality of films in his era did not suffer, as it did in later periods. The films of NTR were High Culture for the Masses. They demonstrated that it was possible to create meaningful and mature films for even illiterate audiences . If we had Gidugu Ramamurthy garu for Literature, we had Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao garu for Cinema. False dichotomies of stilted inaccessible vs crass cruditude were no longer required. The full spectrum from granthikam to mandalikam to janapadam, could be enjoyed, only if presented with taste and aesthetics. This mantle, after a long hiatus, has been taken up again by director S.S.Rajamouli.

These matters not withstanding, having taken a look at the man behind the films, let us take a look at the movie mogul in his films.

Paathaala Bhairavi

It’s of course difficult to pinpoint a single scene, a single movie, or a single set of movies as definitive of the body of work an artiste has contributed to the body saamskruthik, but there are a few standouts not only for cultural purposes but for career purposes as well. The first such movie is the popular Paathala Bhairavi. Arguably the first blockbuster in a long and illustrious career, this was NTR’s first true contribution to the long list of cultural significant films he produced.

A romantic hero, a lover, and a fighter, the character he played was in truth, the Telugu every man. This 1951 hit made waves not only in both Telugu states (unification would be a long 5 years later…) . What was praiseworthy about it was how it was based off the native Burrakatha tradition of Telugudom. But if any one scene truly embodies the subtleties that are often missed in the grandeur of Taraka Rama Rao Senior, it is this.

Maya Bazaar

For all the incipient greatness of Paathaala Bhairavi, it was Maya Bazaar that forever etched NTR in the hearts of Telugus. Appearing in the first of what would eventually be 17 appearances as Lord Krishna, it was this cinematic Rayudu’s most popular role.

The execrable modern attempts to create almost an androgrynous Krishna would be firmly rebuked with a single screening of the “Ranchod” portrayed by Rama Rao. Indeed, NTR’s Kannayya gave us the statesman and strategic thinker, rather than than the traditional young flute-player or philosophic Gita-giver. It was a serious Krishna, that nevertheless, lost none of the provocative charm and coy uplifting inspiration.

One would make juxtaposition with the much later, and nationally-recognised Nitish Bharadwaj, but my Telugu credentials would stand impeached, so NTR it is…


Arguably one of his most sensitive roles, it also showed that, in contrast to the decidedly modern “eve-teasing” and general street harassment of women courtesy Bollywood, lotharios of a different era had a more genteel and courteous approach to women, even when being playful.

In contrast to this era of narcissism and solipsism as strategy for social success, NTR’s character here showed how restrained charm, and manly sensitiveness, along with boyish playfulness, go a longer way for would-be Kamadeva’s even in our era. Indeed, his character found himself the object of affection of not only Missamma herself, but Jamuna’s character as well!

This scene nevertheless captures his unique ability to project a confident yet approachable and self-aware masculinity on screen. It was not loud and brash, but cultured and self-mastered.



Last but not least, it was this movie, more than any other, that showed us NTR the acting professional, rather than merely NTR the star. His full depth and range was seen in this production. His turn in the role of Brihannala (Arjuna’s identity during the Pandavas’ agyatavasam) was genre-defining. This was all the more so given the fact that he learned dance from none other than the eminence grise of Kuchipudi himself, Sri Vempati Chinna Satyam garu.

Of course, there are many, many more movies that could be pored over, and indeed, will be. Nevertheless, here are a few other standouts.

Other Notable Filmography


Tenali Rama Krishna

Mahamantri Timmarasu

Srinadha Kavi Sarvabhouma

Sampoorna Ramayanam

Gundamma Katha

Sri Venkateshwara Mahatmyam

Bobbili Puli

Full Filmography


With three terms as Chief Ministers Rama Rao garu had as long-lasting a legacy in politics as he did in films. Each time he would be voted out of office, he would return to power with landslide victories. Indeed, in his final days, he had hoped to do the same, but Destiny decided otherwise.

From breaking the oppressive Patel-Patwari system of the Nizam to giving a firm rebuke to the Gandhi dynasty and its Congi cronies, NTR is synonymous with one thing: Self-Respect. But his was not a crass “self-respect” that singled out a single caste or a set of “settlers” for slander, it was a self-respect that brought people together rather than divide them up. Did he cater to his base?—sure, like any sharp politician does. The question is, did his actions and policies benefit the state as a whole?

True Atma-gauram lies not in “licking the ones who kick and kicking the ones who lick”, but giving a black eye to those who push you around and protecting those who can’t protect themselves. That is the difference between a poodle and a purusha. The ethos of Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao reminded us precisely of that Nara-tattvam and that Telugu Atma-Gauravam and that Andhra Abhimanam. One can be a good local citizen, a good state citizen, a good national citizen, and a good cultural denizen. NTR represented all four.

He firmly stood up to the presiding national leader who over-stepped his bounds, to show Telugus could not be pushed around. It did not matter what the caste was of T.Anjaiah whom Rajiv Gandhi insulted, what mattered was his mother tongue. The only jati that mattered here was the Andhra jati.

He crushed the fundamentalists from Old City Hyderabad, and helped reassert the place of Golkonda as an old capital of the Telugus. This is true atma-gauram. This ended the communal riots during Ganesh Nimmajan.  And yet from the days of NTR and CBN (who finally tamed them), here is the state of the new state today.

He, significantly, chaired the National Front, a left-leaning alliance, that served as a counterweight to Congress. At the height of his popularity, NTR was thus deemed Prime Ministerial material, and had luck ultimately favoured, he may have succeeded—such were the shadows he cast in those days. Nevertheless, the opportunity did not fructify, and instead, true to his legacy, he promoted the candidacy of the first South Indian and first Telugu Prime Minister, Sri Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao garu. Though the relations between PVNR and NTR would ebb-and-flow, there was a common bond of Teluguthanam, that, whatever their differences, united them. Rama Rao garu even refused to field an opponent against the future PM, for the Lok Sabha seat.

As such, perhaps the most telling description of all came from his sometimes political rival, and a man he himself nevertheless supported.

The prime minister, Narasimha Rao, described him as “a man of many parts – a learned and deeply religious person, a very fine and powerful actor who swayed millions of people, a forceful orator and above all, a man of the masses.”[4]

But for all of Telugudom, NTR was more than just “a very fine and powerful actor“, but a reel and real-life superstar who not only defined Andhra Cinema, but became synonymous with the Divine Stories it once told. To this day, he set a cultural standard that Telugu film is only again beginning to rediscover in both depth and grandeur. The statues still being constructed of him, confirm this story.

While his administration was not free of caste-conflict, notably two key episodes standing out (Vangaveeti Ranga and the Violence at Karamchedu), to blame NTR directly would be as unfair as blaming PVNR for the Babri Riots. Politics is complicated, and whatever role caste plays in it today, it only emphasises the need for us to focus more on Rajdharma than just Rajniti. Political leaders are also products of their time, and such matters are better left for historians to research more deeply.

For the purposes of Andhra Cultural Portal, however, the cultural contribution of this man is what stands out the most.



The cultural impact of Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao cannot be minimised. This is for the simple fact that he was the thespian who brought High Culture to the Masses. Rather than looking down upon the mamidi manishi, and churning out mindless drivel for box office collections, he told us stories that defined the genre: Maya Bazaar, Missamma, Paathaala Bhairavi, Narthanasala, Bhookailas, the list goes on and on for films that not only gave us entertaining stories, but that lifted our spirits and intellects.

Even religion was dealt with a tasteful manner, not with the blaring of instruments, but with the touching of the soul. It was this deft weaving of the nava rasa and dhvani that gave never-ending resonance to his political message. Populist though he was, there was a dharma to his dharna.

Many may of course point to various corruption charges. But even the great PVNR was not immune to these allegations, and politics in India has in recent centuries, truly been a grimy business. What’s more, as one can see with a certain political party in the State of Delhi, and even outside the country, more often than not, accusers often have grimier hands that the accused.

Others of course bring focus to NTR’s second wife and her political involvement in his waning days, others may point out to gossip of numerous love affairs. But men of power have always had powerful appetites, and have been hurt by them in the process. Whether the rumours of the silent coup on the inside are as true as the overt rebellion from his family on the outside, is a matter for historians to resolve. But if one criticism can be made of NTR, it’s that he, like other politicians from Bhishma to L.K.Advani, should make succession plans and retire at the right age.

Along with this cultural legacy, was a familial one. Family matters aside, his name carries on today with not only his sons, but his Grandson and namesake NTR junior, and even the son of first Chief Minister of new Telangana state. Such is the stamp of “Taraka Rama Rao”, literally.

And to return to matters full circle, while one should aspire to the legacy of Ram, the question ultimately is what good was done for the people, state, and  culture.

NTR’s achievements, both political and cultural speak for themselves. Above all, however, the measure of a man is not whether he alternates between tyrant and sycophant. A real leader doesn’t beat up on the weak while slinking away before the strong. He stands up to the strong and defends the weak, as he did during Indira Gandhis regime. That is true self-respect. Ahankar and Ego take pride in flattery, braggadocio, and bullying. Real leaders show us the real meaning of atma-gauram. Not complaining about settlers who are your language brothers, but recognising the perils posed by persian-language promoting videshi colonists. Not emotionally combusting at slights and provocations, or last minute last stands, but harnessing man power and organising people power for the common good, consistently. That is real atma-gauram.

It was NTR who showed how to be a good regional leader and a good national leader. It was NTR who showed the real meaning of class: aristrocracy not of distant royalty, but of an accessible and courteous and cultured gentry. To neither take for granted our state and mother tongue, but to also not neglect the national interest. It was NTR who reminded Telugus of Self-Respect.

It was NTR who showed us the power of unity and the importance of Telugu Thanam.

Johar Anna garu.


  1. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-telugu-desam-party-turns-29-nt-rama-rao-remembered-1364859
  2. http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/mp/2002/12/09/stories/2002120901160200.htm
  3. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/telugu/movies/news/NTR-is-the-greatest-Indian-actor/articleshow/18860418.cms
  4. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-n-t-rama-rao-1324748.html
  5. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/19/world/n-t-rama-rao-72-is-dead-star-status-infused-his-politics.html?_r=0
  6. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/article309419.ece
  7. http://www.thehindu.com/2004/03/09/stories/2004030913280300.htm
  8. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/Cabinet-recommends-rice-sambar-for-mid-day-meal/articleshow/23508751.cms?referral=PM
  9. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004417/?ref_=fn_al_nm_1

పంచతంత్రం STORIES OF PANCHATANTRA—Mitra Labhamu (Gaining Friends) Ch.3







[Continuing the Series of Original Poems on the Panchatantra by Chandra gaaru, is Chapter 3 of Mitra Labhamu. Chapters 1 & 2 can be found here.]

నూక యాశతో భూమికి దిగుగ బోవ
బోయ బన్నిన వలలోన బోయి చిక్క
గంపెడాశతొ వస్తిమి గనికరించు
పరివారము రక్షించి బోవ నిమ్ము! 21
“నూకల మీద ఆశతో కిందకు దిగగా, బోయ వాడు పన్నిన వలలో చిక్కుకున్నాము. నీ మీద గంపెడాశతో వచ్చాము. కనికరించి నా పరివారాన్ని ముందుగా రక్షించు” అని గువ్వల రాజు పలికెను.

English: The King of Doves said thus. “Greedy to eat the grains on the earth, we flew down and got entangled in the net thrown by the wily hunter. Please rescue my subject with kindness”

Image result for panchatantra images

తుదకు నీ బళ్ళ బిగువు తోడ కావు
నన్ను యనగ మూషిక రాజు నొచ్చు కొనియె
మొదలు రాజు గాదె తుదకు మిగుల బంట్లు
యనగ గువ్వ రాజు యిటుల నుడివె! 22
“నా పరి జనాన్ని కాచిన పిదప నా బధాలను కూడా తొలిగించు!” అని గువ్వల రాజు మూషిక రాజును వేడుకొనెను. అది విన్న మూషిక రాజు నొచ్చుకొని ఇటుల పలికెను. “మొదట రాజు ప్రాణాలు కాపాడి, తరువాయి పరిజనుల కాచుట పాడి కాదే?” అనగా గువ్వల రాజు ఇట్లు పలికెను.

English: “Finally, you can save me with the strength of your teeth.”, When the King of Doves said thus the King of Mice felt sad and said, “Oh! Friend! Is it not appropriate if the King is rescued first and then the subjects?”

నమ్ము వారిని కాపాడి నన్ను గావు
రాజ ధర్మము కాదటె ప్రజల గావ
సేమ ముండెడి ప్రజలు రామ రక్ష
వారి బంధమ్ము తొలగించి వారి బంపు! 23
“నన్ను నమ్మిన వారిని కాచి నన్ను కాపాడు. ప్రజలను కాపాడుట రాజ ధర్మము కాదా? ప్రజల క్షేమమే కదా రాజులకు శ్రీ రామ రక్ష. ముందు వారిని కాపాడి పంపుము.”

“Is it not my duty to protect my subjects, as a King? They came with me having belief. The safety of people is as Rama’s blessing to the King”, so said the King of Doves. “So, you rescue them first and send them on their way”.

యనవుడు మూషిక రాజు వలను గల తాళ్ళను పళ్ళతో పట పట కొరికి చివరకు చిత్రగ్రీవుని కూడా విముక్తి చేసెను. 24

English: Hearing this, the King of Mice rescued all the doves including the King by cutting the net with his teeth,

ఎలుక గువ్వ చెలిమి ఇటులుండ చూసిన
వాయసమ్ము కలుగు చెంత చేరి
మూషికుండ నేను మిత్రుడ గువ్వకు
నీదు స్నెహ మరసి నిన్ను వేడ! 25
గువ్వ, మూషికము చెలిమి కనులారా చూసిన వాయసము మూషికము నివాసమైన కలుగు వద్దకు వచ్చి, ” ఓ మూషిక రాజా! నేను చిత్రగ్రీవుని మిత్రుడను. మీ ఇరివురి స్నేహము చూసి ఎంతో సంతొషము కలిగింది. నీతో మైత్రి కొరి వచ్చాను” అని పలికింది.

Looking with happiness, the friendship of the Mouse and Dove, the Crow came to the rat hole and said thus. “ Oh! Hiranyaka! I am friend of Chitrgreeva. I was elated to see how close you two were. So I came here seeking your hand of friendship”

కలుగు నుంచి వచ్చి కనుమ నన్ను కరుణ
యనగ మూషికమ్ము యిటుల నుడివె
నీదు నాదు జాతి కాదు మిత్రు లెపుడు
మైత్రి నీవు నేను మసలు టెటుల! 26
“కలుగు బయటికి వచ్చి నన్ను ఒక్క సారి చూసి పొమ్ము” అని వాయసము వేడుకొనగా, మూషికము ఇటుల పలికెను. “ఒయి! వాయసమా! నీకూ, నాకూ మైత్రి పొసగుటెటుల? మనది జాతి వైరము కదా? వాయసము, మూషికము చెలిమి చేయడమనేది కష్టము కదా?

“Please come out of your hole and see me” Then, the King of Mice said, “ Dear Crow! How can we be friends? Was there not enmity between our communities since days of yore? How can a mouse and crow be friends?”

మమ్ము దినెడి జాతి మీదిగ యెటు నేను
నమ్మి నీదు యెదుట రాగలండ
యనగ వాయసమ్ము యిట్టుల బలికెను
నొచ్చు కొంటి చాల నీదు మాట! 27
మమ్మల్ని భక్షించే జాతి మీది కదా? నిన్ను నమ్మి ఎటుల బయటికి రాగలను?” అని మూషిక రాజు పలికెను. అది విన్న వాయసము, “మూషిక రాజా, నీ మాటలు నన్నెంతో బాధించాయి!”

“ Your people eat us. How can I believe you and come out? So said Hiranyaka from inside his hole. The crow replied, Oh! Friend! Your words troubled my conscience”

మూషిక రాజు మరల నిట్లనియె.

The Mouse King further said.

తగిన వారి మధ్యె తగునుగ స్నేహము
మైత్రి యెటుల మనదు మధ్య చెప్పు
యనగ వాయసమ్ము యటులనె కానిమ్ము
మైత్రి లేక నేను మనగ లేను! 28
మూషిక రాజు ఇంకనూ ఇట్లు పలికెను. “స్నేహానికి ఇద్దరి మధ్యా సరియయిన లక్షణాలు ముఖ్యము కదా. మనవి విరుద్ధ స్వబావాలు” అనగా వాయసము అటులనే కానిమ్ము అని అచటనే కూర్చుండి పోయెను.

English: Friendship is possible where characters and cultures meet. We have characters that oppose each other” But the crow sat there on “Dharna”

యనుచు వాయసమ్ము యకడనె కూర్చుండె
యపుడు యెలుక యిటుల బలికె బ్రేమ
అగ్నికాగు నీరు యగ్నియె జల్లార్చు
వైరి జాతి తోడ తగదు మైత్రి! 29
ఆ విధంగా కూర్చున్న వాయసముతో మూషికము ప్రేమతో ఇటుల పలికెను. ” వాయసమా! నీకు తెలియనిది కాదు. ఏ అగ్ని సహాయము తీసుకొని నీరు వేడెక్కుతుందో, అదే నీరు ఆ అగ్నిని చల్లారుస్తుంది. నిప్పూ, నీరూ వలెనే మనది వైరి జాతి, మన మధ్య స్నేహ మెలా పొసగుతుంది?

Observing that the crow was not moving the King of Mice said out of affection, “ How can fire and water together. Does the water that uses the fire to get hot, douse the same fire by using its inner character? How can we be friends?”

నీవు బయటి కొచ్చి నన్నును జూడొకొ
కన కుండ యెటుల కోప పడెదు
చూసి చెప్ప రాదె చేటు ఏమి కలుగు
యనగ మూషికమ్ము యిటులను బలికెను! 30
పట్టు వదలని వాయసము ఇటుల వాపోయెను. “ఒక్క సారి కలుగు బయటకు వచ్చి నన్ను చూడవచ్చు కదా? చూడకుండగనే న్యాయాన్యాయాలు ఎలా నిర్ణయిస్తావు?” అనగా మూషిక రాజు ఇటుల పలికెను.

English: The adamant crow persisted. “Why don’t you come and see me and talk? How can you judge me without even seeing me?”

Image result for panchatantra images

వైర ముండు రెండు విధమ్ముల జగమున
పుట్టు వైర మొకటి బుట్టగానె
విషయ వాంఛ తోడ వచ్చును మరి యొకటి
కుక్క పిల్లి యుండు కలిసి యెటుల! 31
“ప్రపంచంలో రెండు రకాల వైరాలుంటాయి. ఒకటి పుట్టుకతో వచ్చే జాతి వైరము. రెండోది విషయ వాంఛతో వచ్చే వైరము.కుక్క, పిల్లి కలిసి ఉండడం సాద్యమా?”

English: “There is two kinds of enmity in the world. One comes by birth. The other comes because of desires to own things. Is it possible for a cat and dog to live together?

మృగరాజు మనునె మదపు టేనుగు తోడ
మనదు మధ్యె మైత్రి మొదలె లేదు
నీరు నిప్పు మధ్య నేస్త మెటుల
తిరిగిపొమ్ము వాదు తగదు నీకు! 32
“మృగరాజు మదపుటేనుగుతో స్నేహము చేయునా? మన మధ్య పుట్టుకతోనే వైరమున్నది. నీరు, నిప్పు కలిసి ఎలా ఉండగలవు? నా మాట విని వెను తిరిగి పొమ్ము”

“How can a Lion King and an elephant make friendship? How can water and fire live together? Hear my word and go back to your place”

యనగ వినిన కాకి యిటులను బలికెను
మైత్రి కలుగు ఏడు మాట లాడ
నీవు యుండు కలుగు నీదు లోన
నన్ను బలుకరించు నీవు బ్రేమ తోడను! 33
అనగా విని వాయసము ఇటుల పలికెను.” ఏడు మాటలతో స్నేహం బలపడుందని పెద్దలు చెబుతారు. నువ్వు నీ కలుగులో ఉండు. నేను ఇక్కడే ఉంటాను. తియ్యని కబుర్లు చెప్పు. వింటాను.”

Hearing these words, the crow said “ elders say friendship is possible on exchange of seven words between two people. You stay in your hole. I will stay here. We can exchange sweet words without meeting each other also”

యనగ చెప్ప కాకి ఎలుక సంతస మందె
కలుగు నండె యెలుక కాకి బయట
కధలు చెప్పగ దొడగె కాలమె దెలియక
నెయ్య మటుల బెరిగె నియతి తోడ! 34
ఈ విధంగా వాయసము పలుకగ విని ఆనంద పడిన మూషిక రాజు కలుగు లోపల నుంచి తియ్యని కధలు చెప్ప సాగెను.కాకి బయట నుంచే తిరిగి కబుర్లు చెప్ప సాగెను. ఈ విధంగా కాలమే తెలియ కుండా వారి మధ్య స్నేహ బంధము బలపడెను.

English: The King of Mice felt happy and started sweet conversation with the crow from inside his hole. The crow was talking in return staying outside only” Like this, the bond of friendship between them got strengthened by the day.

కాకి తెచ్చి బెట్టె కలుగు చెంత దినుసు
ఎలుక దెచ్చి బెట్టె కలుగు నుంచి
నెయ్య మయ్యె వారి నడుమను యెంతయొ
యటుల యుండు గాదె యనగ బ్రేమ! 35
ప్రతి దినమూ వాయసము కలుగు చెంత తిను బండారాలు తెచ్చి పెట్టేది. మూషికము తన కలుగులో దాచుకున్న తిను బండారాలను తెచ్చి పెట్టేది.ఆ విధంగా వారి మద్య బలీయమైన స్నేహం ఏర్పడింది. అహా! ప్రేమ, స్నేహాలన్న ఇంత తియ్యగా ఉంటాయి కదా?

Every Day, the crow was bringing grains and other eatables and keeping near the hole. The mouse used to share her saved food with the crow. Thus, an unbreakable friendship bond developed between them. Is it not surprising how friendship develops even between born enemies?


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Power or Perdition — Public Concern over a Nuclear Andhra



‘Andhra Pradesh set to become a nuclear power hub,’ the headline of a report in The Hindu dated July 21, 2016, says. It quotes a central minister as saying, ‘In Andhra Pradesh six nuclear centres are going to be created, totalling thousands of megawatts capacity.’ As against the government’s goal of 53,000 MW installed capacity by 2031, AP will account for 30,000 MW.’

One is free to feel elated and take the ‘bonanza’ granted to AP as solely out of immense love of the Centre.  One is also free to feel that Andhra Pradesh is playing host to so many nuclear reactors at its own peril. The states of Gujarat, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are not so hospitable as AP, in the teeth of uprising of their people. Two of the centres proposed in AP are by transfer one each from West Bengal and Gujarat.

Interestingly, in Gujarat, besides the opposing people, the Tatas, the Adanis and Essar are not ‘comfortable’ with the gigantic plant proposed as they are owners of power plants there. What a euphemistic word to be used by the paper—not feel comfortable; instead of the word opposed. Some people of AP at the proposed locations may at best be ‘feeling uncomfortable,’ not more than that yet. Are they fatalistic or are so pragmatic that they are not prepared to break their heads against a stone wall? Even at Kovvada in Srikakulam district the people seem to be giving up their struggle of years. What is the tactic of governments? They wait to the extent possible and tire out the people whose struggle in opposition is intense. Then the poor and fatigued people, who are fatalistic basically, can be lured into accepting packages by making them appear attractive to their eyes—offers they cannot refuse.

Is it coincidental or paradoxical or both that at a time when the global nuclear industry is in doldrums and the global share of nuclear power has fallen from its historic peak of 17.6 to 10.7 per cent in 2015, the proposal to make AP a nuclear hub has come about? One thing, however, could perhaps be said. For nothing in return those in governments take such major decisions, which have far reaching consequences, in the name of national interest. Who decides which is in national interest and which is not? Not the people, but the governments which are not afraid of the people except in an election time. India does not have a history of the people of an entire state taking up cudgels against setting up nuclear plants; those who are away from a site chosen feel comfortable of the fact that, after all, it is not going to happen in their own frontyards or backyards. In a selfish world why should one bother oneself by taking a holistic attitude and contracting others’ headaches?

In the backdrop of the government’s decision, those who are going to live in the company of so many nuclear reactors—just in one statein their neighborhood need to know some basic facts concerning nuclear energy with a historical perspective. The safety of generation after generation to come over thousands of years is now at stake. Let us question ourselves as to what moral right we have to drag future generations into dangers by a step the present generation takes. Once the people in the state of AP know enough of the issues involved and what they entail to them, it is up to them whether to take to a path of agitation or to resign themselves to the potential dangers. But how will they know, in the first place? It is not just an issue of displacement of people, more serious concerns are involved in the proposal. What is happening in reality? Once the displacement issue is taken care of nuclear concerns are ignored by the people.

Nothing new is going to be attempted here other than giving an account of the facts which already are in the public domain as results of brainstorming by those who are far better qualified than me. I want to re-echo them in prapancha hitam—by a ‘collection’, beelike, from various sources. This honey is bitter unlike its sweet cousin; but both intend to do good. This is a layman’s narrative for laymen’s sake. There is no guarantee against a feeling of already being familiar with these facts, while going through them—except that it is worthwhile.

Proposed Andhra Pradesh Nuclear Power Projects in 2016
$ – Rosatom is likely to build 6 power plants in the state. Srikakulam & Nellore Districts among the locations.
$1 Russian nuclear power project to build 6 VVER reactors in Haripur, West Bengal is likely to be moved to Andhra Pradesh due to protests by locals.
$ –  Westinghouse Electric announced that it will be relocating 1 proposed project to build 6 nuclear reactors from Mithi Vardi in Gujarat to Andhra Pradesh.
$ – GE-Hitachi: allocated a site in Andhra Pradesh to build 6 Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactors. the project has been put on hold as India is wary of GE- Hitachi nuclear reactors as they have not been tested before.
$ – “if everything goes according to plan, Andhra Pradesh will be home to more than a dozen nuclear reactors.” [3]
 ~18 Reactors and ~9 Nuclear Plants to be constructed in Andhra Pradesh


The nuclear issue goes beyond the need of energy security, defence and foreign policy points and there’s the rub.

Dr Anil Kakodkar, former head of the Department of Atomic Energy, said in a Marathi article that India must import reactors with billions of dollars because, “We  also have to keep in mind the commercial interests of foreign countries and of corporates there.” That preposterous altruism should be read in conjunction with what Dr A. Gopalakrishnan, a past chairman of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, said in his article of DNA dated March 17, 2011: “Even in the negotiations of costs, the safety and liability of imported reactors, the official nuclear agencies today are operating hand-in-glove with their friends in the corporate houses and federations.” He further says, “Ever since the UPA government has taken over in 2004, the collusion between the PMO, DAE, NPCIL and the various corporate houses in India and abroad has substantively increased.” In the wake of the nuclear deal with the US which would pave the way to the lifting of international nuclear embargo on India, the UPA government had to face a no-trust motion in Parliament.

To save itself it bribed some Members of Parliament by paying Rs.10 crore each involving a total amount of Rs.50 to 60 crores as revealed by Wikileaks. The US embassy at that time informed Washington that the Congress party officials boasted that they would buy opposition MPs to win the trust vote. Why was even the continuation of the government risked on the nuclear issue and corrupt practices resorted to if the intentions were bona fide? If one argues that in the national interest it will not be bad even if dubious means are adopted, that will be a different case. In an article dated at countercurrents.org, Dr Kakodkar is quoted by Capt Buddhi Kota Subbarao, PhD, as saying: “America, Russia and France the countries that we made mediators in the efforts to lift sanctions, and hence, for the nurturing of their business interests, we made deals with them for nuclear projects.” A quid pro quo shamelessly admitted to have been made.

Capt (Dr) Subbarao debunks the conception that nuclear power plants are needed to make nuclear weapons. The plutonium that was used in Pokhran I [1974] and Pokhran II [1998] nuclear tests was derived not from nuclear power reactors but from the Research Reactors.

The nuclear power industry indulges in a strong public relations campaign and it is backed by powerful lobbying groups. When the Three Mile (TMI) accident occurred the whole official establishment and nuclear industry moved in a coordinated manner and were in a denial mode about the ill effects. Some dubbed the effort as “one of the biggest lies ever in American industrial history is that no one died at the Three Mile Island.” Dr John William Gofman, who was instrumental in developing the atomic bomb, had as a medical doctor to his credit breakthrough discoveries in heart diseases and LDL/HDL cholesterol. He was chief of health research at the Atomic Energy Commission. When he came up with findings nailing the lie of the establishment he was promptly fired.  He discovered that regular radioactive emissions from America’s nuclear plants would kill 30,000 citizens per year even without an accident or terror attack.  He refused to change his findings when the industry tried to prevail upon him. He preferred to lose his job.

The Radiation and Public Health Project which tried to reveal horrifying truths of the TMI was branded as of little credibility even by the community of scientists. Joseph Mangano, one of its members, who has a master’s degree in public health, was not surprised by the opposition he faced from the ‘military-industrial-energy-pharmaceutical-governmental complex.’ He ran the shoe-string organisation with offices mostly on his kitchen table that spent several years questioning the safety of nuclear power stations. He came up with the finding that the nation’s 100-plus nuclear power reactors when operated under normal conditions were giving people cancer.

Harvey Wasserman, who edits newsfree.org and is a senior editor of freepress.org, in an article in commondreams.org, dated November 19, 2007, observes, “Today, with billions in bailout dollars on the line, there is big money to be made in saying that atomic reactors have harmed no one.

The country also seems to feel with a touch of quaintness that by doing nuclear business with other countries it can win friends who can come to its aid in international affairs. Add to that the ambitions of the leaders at the helm who hanker after their personal international image. The costs involved in winning such friendships and image-building are not amenable to estimation—colossal the costs are.


American companies have been building nuclear reactors in other countries. Even after 37 years of the accident at the Three Mile Island it is not yet ready to give a chance to new nuclear energy plants. For the US, selling of just two reactors means thousands of jobs.  Barack Obama, who promotes nuclear power deals with other countries, during the course of a speech said that every four minutes another American house or business goes solar.

The French utility Areva, having almost gone bankrupt, scouts for nuclear business. The country plans to reduce its nuclear-generating capacity by a third by 2025 one of the reasons being prohibitive costs of reactors. Where a rich France does not dare, India tries to tread.

Australia possesses over 40 per cent of the world’s uranium reserves, but  it does not dare or care to generate nuclear power.

Russia which is still battling the Chernobyl-disaster cleanup is aggressively pushing for its nuclear trade with other countries.

No nuclear company is prepared to bear any liability to its full extent. They know by experience how huge the costs of liability could be and how accident-prone the reactors are. India is foolhardy to limit the liability of foreign suppliers to just Rs.1500 cr. One major nuclear accident is enough to leave its entire economy in dumps. In the aftermath of the Fukushima disaster Japan is estimated to have incurred anywhere between $150 to 250 billions so far, probably a half of which is towards compensation.

Austria, Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany have decided to freeze or phase out nuclear power.


Maybe nuclear generation by itself is clean, but the same cannot be said of nuclear fuel cycles. They are carbon-emitting. Greenhouse gases are generated during mining and enriching uranium. The construction of a reactor bears large carbon footprints. The proponents of nuclear power highlight the front-end as emission-free, conveniently downplaying the back-end dirtiness. Therefore any claim that nuclear-power generation is clean needs to be taken with a pinch of uranium.


The 6 Kovvada nuclear reactors are estimated to cost Rs.4,00,000 crores. One reactor costs around Rs.65,000 cr. The facts that (a) the plants require the highest capital in the energy sector, (b) they are the highest water guzzlers and (c) they have the highest gestation period of over 10 years among other energies belie the claim that nuclear energy is cheap. Some have put the cost of nuclear energy at Rs.48 cr per megawatt which may not be an exaggeration. To say it is ‘too cheap to meter’ is a big falsehood.


Experts say that in a nuclear power plant the risk can only be lowered but not eliminated. The work of a nuclear plant is extremely complex and it is next to impossible to predict all possible failures. To err is human. You cannot eliminate a human error, unless those involved in the process are superhuman, either in designing or in operation of a plant. There are multiple ways in which accidents could sneak in. If you try to fix one it will give rise to another. In Fukushima while tsunami and earthquake were hand in hand externally, the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents had internal causes.

A study lists 99 nuclear accidents which could cause at least one death or a damage costing above $50,000. India accounts for 7 of them. Besides those, Kakrapur Atomic Power Station in Gujarat on March 11, 2016 suffered a leak of heavy water. The newly commissioned Kudankulam also had a leak.


Three Mile Island Disaster

The US, the only country which exploded a bomb in anger, also has the dubious distinction of having the first major nuclear accident too in its nuclear plant at Three Mile Island on March 28, 1979. A combination of personnel error, design deficiencies, and component failures caused it. As robot cameras revealed one third of the fuel melted. Then no one knew what was really happening as it was unprecedented. Even after 37 years, the decommissioning of the plant and restoration of the site are decades away. Plans are afoot to fully restore the site by 2054—75 years after the happening. They claimed there were no immediate deaths or injuries and that its long-term impact would be negligible. They however admit that the psychological toll was immense.

Though the TMI’s owner claimed that its releases harmed no one, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission admitted to Congress that nobody knew how much radiation escaped or where it went. Official figures showed a huge jump in infant death rates in Hartsburg in the three months after the accident. Compared with the numbers for the previous two years State’s statistics showing heightened cancer rates were quickly altered. An investigative team from the Baltimore News-Herald uncovered a massive epidemic of death and disease among the area’s farm and wild animals. The writers, based on a horrifying series of house-to-house interviews, found cancer, heart attacks, respiratory problems, skin lesions, cataracts, a metallic taste in the mouth, hair loss, etc.

Not many years later, on April 26, 1986, the worst of the three major accidents happened at Chernobyl in Ukraine as a result of an experiment carried out by the plant personnel, besides there being construction errors and negligence. According to a calculation of Dr Alexey Yablokov, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, as reported by Common Dreams dated March, 25 2011, one million people died. He rued that his book ‘Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment,” which he co-authored, had been met mainly with silence from bodies like the World Health Organisation and  no discussion took place about the findings he pointed out in the area around Chernobyl, as contaminated today as it was 25 years ago. Cesium, americium, strontium and plutonium that got deposited in the soil have reached the roots of plants which then propel the radioactivity back to the surface.

Chernobyl Disaster Control & Exclusion Zones

John Vidal in his article, ‘Nuclear green Cheerleaders forget Chernobyl at our peril,’ published in The Guardian dated April 1, 2011, says when he went from hospital to hospital in the still highly contaminated areas of Ukraine and the Belarus border in 2006, after 20 years of the accident, they found deformed and genetically mutilated bodies in the wards; pitifully sick children in homes; adolescents with stunted growth and dwarf torsos; fetuses without thighs or fingers and villagers who told that every member of their families was sick. They heard of many unusual clusters of people with rare bone cancers. One doctor in tears told them that one in three pregnancies in some places were affected and that she was overwhelmed by people with immune and endocrine system disorders. Others said they still saw cesium strontium in the breast milk of mothers living far from the areas thought to be more affected, and significant radiation still existed in the food chain. Villagers testified that the ‘Chernobyl necklace’—thyroid cancer—was so common as to be unremarkable; many showed signs of accelerated ageing. The article further reports that Konstantin Tatuyan, one of the liquidators, who had helped clean up the plant, told them that nearly all his colleagues had died or had cancers of one sort or another. The radiation released at Chernobyl was estimated to have far exceeded the one at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

 When the disaster at Fukushima happened on March 11, 2011, even the Japanese Prime Minister was panicky. In his testimony before the Parliamentary Committee he said, “There wasn’t much information coming to me from the government regulatory agency, NISA, or the Plant’s Operator, TEPCO. I thought I couldn’t make any counter-measures in this crisis. I felt fear.” He condemned the utilities, nuclear regulators, bureaucrats and academics who support the legacy of nuclear energy in Japan. This group [termed as ‘nuclear village’] he felt had no remorse for the disaster.


Fukushima disaster worker in Radiation Suit

The accident resulted in a massive radioactive contamination of Japan’s mainland.  Long-lived radioactive cesium contaminated 30,000 sq km of the land surface. Some 4,500 sq miles was found to have radiation levels that exceeded Japan’s allowable exposure rate. Even after 5 years since the accident, road to recovery has been difficult and long and is not yet complete. It took the government 88 days to accept that a meltdown had taken place. TEPCO [Tokyo Electric Power Company] estimates that the cleanup operations could take up to 40 years.


A Japanese Greenpeace campaigner says, “There is still an enormous amount of radioactivity there which is not controlled, in liquid form, leaking into the underground, and slowly moving into the ocean and that is very dangerous for the future”. Everyday, 300 tons of contaminated water leaks from the crippled nuclear plant. About 3 lakh people lived in the neighbourhood of the accident. Five years after the happening, tens of thousands still live in temporary housing.



Frankenstein faced the wrath of the Adam of his own labour. Having learnt a lesson from what he did he became wiser and refused to create a female monster-mate for the male one to live with. Indians have their own Bhasmaura who chased Siva to save whom Vishnu had to take the trouble of incarnating as Mohini. Our ‘civilised nations’ refuse to learn lessons of their misadventures. They create nuclear waste and they are at their wits’ end on how it can be disposed of. A human lives only a hundred years; the monster is ageless and deathless. If we fail to keep it in proper chains it will devour us. But a tragedy is that you can’t hold it in chains however strong they may be for long. He chaining is just an act of postponing its going on a rampage.

The waste has to be kept in large water pools for cooling down which may take 1 to 10 years and then transferred into caskets [steel cylinders surrounded by additional steel or concrete]. Mind you, nuclear waste can be only stored, not made to disappear. A decommissioned reactor poses as serious a problem as the waste it has generated. Everything in life perishes except nuclear waste. Just imagine how it would be possible to store a huge quantum of waste the 546 reactors generate worldwide.

The Bush administration in 2002 chose Yucca Mountain in Nevada as a common repository for geologic isolation of 70,000 metric tons of its total waste of 107,000 mt and spent on the project $12 billion dollars. The consolidated geological repository was intended to isolate the waste to protect future generations over a period of 250,000 years—which also means that it has the potential to harm for so long a period. The Department of Energy admitted that there was no guarantee that the radioactive waste would not leak into the ground water some day. If it so happens, it would affect potable water, meat grown with the contaminated water, and milk from cows which are exposed to the contamination through their feed and water. The ground water-table could rise and come in contact with the waste. Even the storage containers are prone to breaking open. There also was the possibility of portions of the mountain collapsing. The people were naturally aghast and opposed the move. The Obama administration, as promised at his election time, stopped funding which led to mothballing the project.

What do you expect from democratically elected governments? They should bow to public opinion. But even in countries which wear on their sleeves their democratic credentials, when it comes to nuclear issues, bitter is the experience. There can however be exceptions always. The headline of the BBC News dated May 30, 2011, sounds musical to the ears of those who value human life and public opinion: “Germany: Nuclear power plants to close down by 2022.” Incredible? Germany took a decision to phase out all its nuclear plants by 2022 yielding to massive public protests post the Fukushima disaster. As a first step it decided not to reuse its seven oldest reactors which were taken off line for a safety review. One more would be offline due to some technical glitches and six other ones would go offline by 2021. This was despite the fact that one-fourth of Germany’s energy need is met by nuclear power sector.


Climate temperatures are attributable to variations in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It is an important heat-trapping [greenhouse] gas, which is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels as well as a natural procedure such as respiration, volcano eruptions. If climate changes sea levels rise and oceans become warmer. Longer and more intense draughts threaten crops, wildlife and fresh water supplies. The planet’s diversity of life will be at risk. It affects peoples’ livelihoods, places and species. So if we do not want ourselves to perish we have to cut down on carbon emissions. This is possible only by opting for clean, cheap, renewable and harmless energy. Are we then left with only the option of going nuclear? We already know its perils. We are using nuclear energy to supplement our energy basket of renewables such as wind and solar. A simple question is: What prevents us from investing more in the renewables and obviate the necessity of the nuclear option? An equally simple answer: Nothing prevents us if we have the will. Three major renewable resources are sun, water and wind with various other sources which can chip in handsomely. As Capt (Dr) Subbarao observes India would reap enormous harm by largely investing in nuclear energy which starves funds for other sources of power.

We revere the sun as a god and chant the Gayatri Mantram for both spiritual and earthly well-being. The sun never grudges our drawing more and more energy from its shine [it in fact shines for our sake]. But take enough care even from a god and do not over-expose yourselves to its radiation. It allows us to make hay while it shines. Means are being found to store such hay and use it even when it does not shine, especially during nights. As per a cnn.com report dated October 3, 2011, unlike a typical solar power plant which stops working when the sun sets, a new one in southern Spain, called ‘Gemasolar’ can supply power all through the night. During the day it captures the energy of the sun and stores it in a tank. Then, regardless of day or night it can be converted into electricity. Located outside a village Fuentes de Analucia, ‘Gemasolar’  bills itself as the world’s first commercial-scale concentrated power plant that  uses molten salts receiver technology. 2,650 large mirrors called heliostats direct the sun’s rays to a receiver at the top of Gemasolar’s 450-foot tower that shines like a beacon during the day.

The Hindu dated October, 4, 2012, quotes a study according to which India can meet its energy needs sans nuclear power. The study of two professors from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, published in ‘Current Science’ says 4.1 per cent of the total uncultivable and wasteland area in India is enough to meet the projected amount of annual demand of 3,400 TWh by 2070 by solar energy alone. Even that extent of land could be reduced to 3.11 per cent if other potential renewable could be tapped. The newspaper also quoted another IISc professor as saying that a three kilowatt rooftop solar panel system on the 425 million Indian households can generate total per-year energy of 1900 TWh and meet half the demand projected by 2070.

Wind never stops from blowing. We have read about some yogis substituting air for food. If we all could emulate them we can solve the problem of hunger in the world. Paradoxically quite nearby the Kudankulam nuclear plant, thousands of windmills are rotating generating wind power. The potential of wind energy in India is estimated at 20 to 30 times more than the government’s assessment of over a lakh of megawatts. In come parts of the country the cost of wind power dropped below than of coal-based energy. Wind power can increase to 20 per cent worldwide by 2050.

Hydro and waste-to-energy are other renewable sources of energy. According to an estimate 75 per cent of hydro potential is yet to be exploited. Oh, our potential to produce waste is limitless! It has plenty of potential to generate electricity. Once a stage is reached when not a kilo of waste is not wasted, we may cease to call waste as waste. Bio-mass, bio-gas [sewage, landfills and livestock] could come in handy. Andhra Pradesh being a coastal state is ideal for Tidal power plants.


The World Nuclear Industry Status Report dated July 13, 2016, makes an interesting reading:

  1. Compared with 1977, when the Kyoto protocol on climate change was signed, in 2015 an additional 829 TWh wind power was produced globally and 252 TWh of solar photovoltaic electricity, compared to Nuclei’s additional power of 178 TWh.
  2. In 2015, power generation using Solar energy grew 33 per cent, wind power over 17 per cent, and 1.3 per cent from nuclear source, entirely due to 31 per cent increase in China.
  3. China spent over $100 billion on renewables in 2015. While investment decisions for 6 nuclear reactors amount to $18 billion.
  4. Share in energy-mix: The nuclear share of the world’s power generated remains stable over the last four years, with 10.7 per cent in 2015 after falling steadily from the historic peak of 17.6 per cent in 1996.

The Guardian dated May 9, 2011, reports that the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change [IGPCC], the body of the world’s leading climate scientists, convened by the United Nations, says that if the full range of renewable energy technologies are deployed, the world could keep greenhouse gas concentrates to less than 450 parts per million, the level scientists have projected will be the limit of safety beyond which climate change becomes catastrophic and irreversible. Investment in renewables to the extent needed would cost only about 1.1 per cent of global GDP annually.



  • An atom is the smallest particle that can break a material. Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus of an atom. At the core of an atom there are two types of particles—neutrons and protons—that are held together. Nuclear energy is the energy that holds neutrons and protons. It can be obtained in two ways, fusion and fissure. In fusion energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together. In fissure, atoms are split into smaller atoms, releasing energy. Reactors run on the fission mode.
  • Nuclear reactors use fuel made of solid ceramic pellets or enriched uranium that are sealed in strong metal tubes. These are bundled together to form a nuclear fuel assembly. The uranium pellets are about the size of the tip our little finger. They release tremendous amount of energy in a nuclear reactor. One pellet has an amount of energy equivalent to almost one ton of coal. The energy released by the nuclear fuel produces great heat, which boils water into steam. The steam turns giant turbines, which generate electricity. After 3 or 4 years in a reactor, the pellets are no longer effective for providing electricity and the assembly is removed from the reactor. After removal, the assembly now called spent fuel, is highly radioactive.
  • Reprocessing is a method of chemically treating spent fuel to separate out uranium and plutonium. The byproduct is a highly radioactive sludge-like residue. By this method is produced fissile material for nuclear weapons.
  • Nuclear waste is of two kinds—(1) spent nuclear fuel which is radioactive byproduct of electricity-generation at commercial nuclear power plants, and (2) high-level radioactive waste the byproduct from reprocessing the spent fuel to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Nuclear waste contains highly radioactive elements such as, cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of the elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years.
  • Radioactive material is one which emits radioactive energy in the form of alpha, or gamma particles or rays all of which can damage living tissues.


Loka samastA sukhinO bhavantu

Santi santi santihi


  1. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/false-promise-of-nuclear-power/article6612000.ece
  2. http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/india-can-meet-energy-needs-sans-npower-study/article3964452.ece
  3. http://sputniknews.com/asia/20160722/1043450786/nuclear-power-plant-india.html
  4. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/mar/15/nuclear-earthquake-tsunami-energy-industry
  5. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/us/three-mile-island-and-nuclear-hopes-and-fears.html?_r=0
  6. https://stateimpact.npr.org/pennsylvania/2014/03/28/three-mile-island-35-years-later/
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yucca_Mountain_nuclear_waste_repository
  8. https://www.citizen.org/documents/yucca.PDF
  9. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2007/09/27/commentary/hype-on-nuclear-power-is-misleading/#.V5XtUr-T6yE
  10. http://www.indiatimes.com/news/india/two-villages-in-andhra-pradesh-show-how-it-s-done-will-now-run-entirely-on-solar-power-252739.html
  11. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/23/business/energy-environment/catching-waves-and-turning-them-into-electricity.html?rref=collection%2Ftimestopic%2FTidal%20and%20Wave%20Power
  12. http://www.worldnuclearreport.org/The-World-Nuclear-Industry-Status-Report-2016-HTML.html
  13. http://www.breakthrough-india.org/archives/nuclear2.pdf
  14. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/mar/15/nuclear-earthquake-tsunami-energy-industry


This Post was composed by Navuluri Rao garu. You can follow him on Twitter.

Disclaimer: This article represents the opinions of the Author, and should not be considered a reflection of the views of the Andhra Cultural Portal. The Author is responsible for ensuring the factual veracity of the content, herein.

పంచతంత్రం STORIES OF PANCHATANTRA—Mitra Labhamu (Gaining Friends)






For more than two and a half millennia, the Panchatantra tales have regaled children and adults alike with a moral at the end of every story. Some believe that they are as old as the Rig Veda. There is also another story about these fables. According to it, these are stories Shiva told his consort Parvati.The present series is based on the Sanskrit original.
A king, worried that his three sons are without the wisdom to live in a world of wile and guile, asks a learned man called Vishnu Sharman to teach them the ways of the world.
Since his wards are dimwits, Vishnu Sharman decides to pass on wisdom to them in the form of stories. In these stories, he makes animals speak like human beings. Panchatantra is a collection of attractively told stories about the five ways that help the human being succeed in life. Pancha means five and tantra means ways or strategies or principles. Addressed to the king’s children, the stories are primarily about statecraft and are popular throughout the world.


विद्वत्त्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन ।

स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥

Scholar and king are never comparable. King is worshipped in his country, but scholar is worshipped everywhere.

ఈ రోజు నుంచి పంచతంత్రం కధలను తేలికైన, కమ్మని తెలుగు పదాలతో పద్య రూపంలో వ్రాయాలని సంకల్పించాను. సచిత్రంగా చేసి అందంగా ఉండేలా పిల్లలకు ఉపయోగ పడేలా చెయ్యాలని సంకల్పం.

From today, I decided to write the story “PANCH TANTRAM” a collection of moral stories penned by Manya Vishnu Sharma.

నాకు భగవంతుడిచ్చిన అహంకారాన్ని, ఆత్మ విశ్వాసంగా మార్చుకోమని ఇప్పటికి సంకల్పం కలిగింది.

I mode vow that I will turn my arrogance born out of immense self-confidence, knowledge and thirst for more into pure self-confidence.

విష్ణు శర్మ నామ విప్రుండు గురువు
శిష్యులందరికిని చెప్పె కథలు
నాడు నేడు రేపు నీతి బతుకు రీతి
పంచతంత్ర మంచు పేరు నిడెను! 1
విష్ణు శర్మ అనే బ్రాహ్మణుడు తన శిష్యులకి పంచతంత్రమనే పేరుతో, ఐదు కధలు చెప్పెను. ఈ కధలు నాడు, నేడు రేపు ప్రజల ప్రవర్తనకు, రాజ ధర్మానికీ, మిత్రులను పొందడానికీ వంటి విషయాలలో మార్గదర్షకాలుగా ఉంటూ వస్తున్నాయి.


A Brahmin and Teacher known as Vishnu Sharma, taught five moral stories to his students. These stories were applicable yesterday, are applicable today, will be applicable tomorrow. They teach us how people should behave, the duties of Kings and getting friends, eliminating enemies.

అయిదు కధలు జెప్పె యనువగు భాషలో
మిత్ర లాభ మనియు మిత్ర భెద
మనియు మూడు కథలు మరిజెప్పె గురువు
పంచతంత్ర మన్న యెంచు రీతి! 2
పంచతంత్రమనే ఈ కధలలో విష్ణు శర్మ అనే ఈ గురువు మిత్ర లాభము, మిత్ర భేదము, లబ్ధ ప్రణాశము, అపరీక్షికారిత్వము అనే అయిదు కధలు చెప్పారు.


In these five stories are namedPanchatantra, the teacher told the stories “Gaining Friends, Losing friends, Loss of gains, Of crows and owls, and Imprudence.”

శాస్త్ర వేద మెల్ల చదివిన చాణక్యు
రాజనీతి విస్ణు వాచ్య రీతి
రెండు గలిపి జదువు పండు జనమ
తంత్ర మొకటి పంచ తంత్ర మొకటి!3
వేద శాస్త్రాలు అవపోసన పట్టిన చాణుక్యుని రాజకీయ తంత్రం, విష్ణు శర్మ వాచ్యంలో ఉన్న నీతి తంత్రమూ, రెండూ ఈ కధల్లో అగుపడతాయి. ఈ పంచతంత్రము చదివితే రెండు తంత్రాలూ ఒకచో చదివి నట్లే. జన్మ ధన్యమవుతుంది.


The Rajaneeti of Chanakya, the Minister well versed in Vedas and Shastras and the knowledge of letters of Vishnu Sharma are both evident in these stories. Life is blessed if we read these stories.

మిత్ర లాభమె మోదము హితుల గలువ
మిత్ర భేదము ఖేదము మిత్రులకును (మోదము శత్రులకును)
మోద ఖేదమ్ముల కధలె మొదటి రెండు
తంత్రి తెంపెను యెలుక తంత్ర మాడె నక్క! 4
మితులను కలిసినప్పుడు వచ్చే ఆనందము మిత్ర లాభంలో, మిత్రులు విడిపోయినప్పుడు వారికి కలిగే ఖేదము (శత్రులకి కలిగే మోదము) మిత్ర భేదము లోనూ, ఈ మోద ఖేదముల కధలే మొదటి రెండు. మొదటి కధలో మిత్రుని వలను కొరికి మిత్రుని రక్షించిన కధ, రెండో కధలో నక్క కుతంత్రంతో మిత్రునిచే, మిత్రుని చంపించిన కధా చెప్పబడ్డాయి.


The first story is about the pleasure one gets when he meets a friend and second one is about the pain one feels when a friend is forced to distance from another one (though this enthralls the common enemy) were described. First story is about a mouse that secures the life of a dove by cutting the net in which he was trapped and in the second one, the story of two foxes that conspire and provoke one friend kill the other.

వాస ముండెను యడవిన వాయసమ్ము
మృగము తాబేలు జింక మూషి కమ్ము
ఒకరి కొకరు సాయము జేసి యొడుపు నుండె
స్నేహ మన్ననె యదియని సెప్పు కొనగ! 5
ఒకానొక అడవిలో ఒక కాకి, జింక, తాబేలూ, ఒక ఎలుకా ఒకరికొకరు పరస్పరం సాయం చేసుకుంటూ, ఆహా! స్నేహమంటే ఇది కదా అనేలా, ఎలా కలిసి ఉన్నాయో మొదటి కధలో వర్ణింపబడింది.


In the first story, a mouse, a deer, a tortoise and a crow that helped each other and lived friendly lives. Seeing this one used to wonder, “Oh! If not this, what is friendship?”

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బోయ యొక్కడు వేటాడ బన్నె వలను
పైన యెగురుచు బొయెడు పావురములు
దినుసు చూసి ఆశతొడ దిగగ బోవ
వారి రాజు చిత్ర గ్రివుడు వారి నాపె! 6
ఇలా ఉండగా ఒక బోయవాడు పక్షులని వేటాడే నిమిత్తం ఒకచోట నూకలు జల్లి, వలను పెట్టి దగ్గర్లో చూస్తూ నిలుచున్నాడు. పైన ఎగురుతూ పోతున్న పావురాల గుంపు ఒకటి భూమిపై నూకలు చూసి ఆశతో దిగుచుండగా, వారి రాజు చిత్రగ్రీవుడు వలదని వారించెను.


As time was passing off as usual in the woods, one day a hunter placed a net under a banyan tree and spread few grains to attract birds. A group of doves flying high saw the grains and with hope of food tried to come down. Their king Chitragreeva, asked them not to venture.

మఱ్ఱి యందున యుండెను ముసలి కాకి
పిలుతు రాతని బ్రియ లఘు పతన కుండు
వేల పక్షుల నడుమున వాస ముండె
చూసె కాకియు బోయను వలను బన్న! 7
ఆ మఱ్ఱి చెట్టు కొమ్మల్లో లఘుపతనకడు అనే కాకి ఎన్నొ ఏళ్ళ నుంచి ఉంటోంది. అదె చెట్టుపైన కొన్ని వేల పక్షులు కూడా నివాస ముంటూ ఉండేవి. ఈ ముసలి కాకి బోయ వల పన్నడం చూసింది.


In the branches of the Banyan Tree an old crow, by name Laghupatanaka has living since long. She saw the hunter laying the trap of net.

అంత ఎగురుచు వచ్చెను ఆక సమున
గువ్వ రాజుతొ కూడిన గుంపు యొకటి
చూసె నూకలు కిందను చెందె ముదము
ఆశ తోడను దిగుటకు సిద్ధ పడెను! 8
ఆ విధంగా ఆకాశంలో ఎగిరే గువ్వలు గుంపుగా నూకల మీద ఆశతో కిందికి దిగే ప్రయత్నం చేశాయి. వారి రాజు, చిత్రగ్రీవుడు వద్దని వారించినా కూడా!


Even though the King of Doves, Chitragreeva warned them not to, the hungry group of doves tried to get down to earth, in the hope of eating the grains.

చిత్ర గ్రీవుడు వారికి చక్ర వర్తి
బలికె ఇటులను తొందర బడగ వలదు
నరుడు దూరని యడనిన నూక యెటుల
మోస మున్నది యిందున ఖండితముగ! 9
వారి రాజు చిత్రగ్రీవుడు చివరి యత్నంగా ఈ విధంగా చెప్పాడు. “మానవ సంచారం లేని కారడవిలో నూకలేలా వచ్చాయి. ఇందులో ఏదో మోసం ఉన్నట్లు కనపడుతున్నది. ఆగండి”


Their king Chitragreeva warned them. “This is a wild forest where humans fear to enter. How can grains come here. There is some trickery in this. Please wait.”

కాకి కూడను వారించె కాదు వలదు
పన్నె వల బోయ పట్ట మనను
నూక యాసతొ ప్రాణంబు నొదల తగదు
అయిన వినవాయె గువ్వలు యాస తోడ! 10
మఱ్ఱి చెట్టుపైన కాకి కూడా ” వలదు. వలదు. మనలను పట్టడానికి బోయ ఒకడు వల పన్ని పోయాడు. కాసిని నూకల కోసము ప్రాణాలు పణంగా పట్ట వద్దు” అని సలహా చెప్పింది. కాని ఆశ వదలని గువ్వలు వాయసము మాట కూడా పెడచెవిన పెట్టడానికి సిద్ధమయ్యాయి.


The crow living on the tree too advised, “No! No! Do not venture to barter your lives to a handful of grains. A hunter laid a trap for us here”. But the greedy and hungry doves do not heed his advice too.

గుంపు యందలి మూర్ఖపు గువ్వ యొకటి
నవ్వుచు రాజుతొ ఇటుల నుడివె రాజ
వయసు తోడను బుద్ధెట్లు నడచి వచ్చు
బుద్ధి మంతుడె ఎపుడును బెద్ద యగడె! 11
ఆ గువ్వల గుంపులోని మూర్ఖపు గువ్వ ఒకటి ఇటుల బలికెను. “రాజ! ఎవడు బుద్దిమంతుడో వాడు వృద్ధుడు గానీ ఏండ్లు మీరిన వాడా వృద్ధుడు?”


A foolish dove in the group said, “Oh! King! The man’s wisdom is old, how can a man more age can be?”

పోయి గువ్వలు చిక్కుకు పోయె వలను
గింజు కొన్నవి భయమున గువ్వ లన్ని
రాజు నయమున బలికెను రాగ మునను
ఆప దొచ్చిన కూడదు యవ సరము! 12
గువ్వలన్ని ఆ యువ పావురము మాట విని ఒక్కసారిగా కిందికి దిగి, నూకల ఆశతో వలలో చిక్కుకొని, గింజుకుంటూ భయముతో వణకడం మొదలు పెట్టాయి. ఆంతట రాజు ప్రేమతో, అనురాగముతో ఇట్లు నుడివెను “ఆపద వచ్చినప్పుడు తొందర, భయము పనికి రావు”


All the doves, hearing the advice of the young dove, flew down with the hope of eating the grains and got entangled in the net. They were so afraid,they started struggling in the net. Then the King said with love and affection, “when we are in trouble, we should not be in a hurry or be afraid”.

ఏక మయ్యిన మనమును ఎగర లేమె
ఒక్క దాటున యందరు ఊపు తోడ
వలను మోసుక పోదం వేగమునను
బుద్ధి తోడను మనమును బతుక గలము! 13
మిత్రులారా! మనమందరమూ, ఐకమత్యంతో ఉంటే ఈ వలను మోసుకుని ఒక్కసారిగా పైకి ఎగరలేమా? వేగంగా ఒక్కసారిగా అందరూ పైకి ఎగరండి. మన కుశాగ్ర బుద్ధి నుపయోగించి ఈ ఆపద గట్టెక్క గలము.


My subjects! If we are united we can lift the net and fly again. So, with all your strength, fly all at a time. We can use our wisdom to protect ourselves and come out of difficult times.

యెగిరి పోదము కలిసియు యాకసమున
హితుడు మిత్రుడు కడు సన్నిహితుడు కలడు
యతను యొక మూషికుడు హిరణ్యకుడు పేరు
పోదమచటికి యతడు నా పొందుకాడు! 14
గువ్వ రాజు ఇలా పలికెను. “మనమందరమూ ఐకమత్యంగా బలంతో పైకి ఎగురుదాము.నాకు హితుదు, అత్యంత సన్నిహితుడు అయిన మూషిక రాజు ఒకడు కలడు. అతని పేరు హిరణ్యకుడు. మనము అక్కడికి ఎగిరి పోవుదము .


The King of Doves said further.  “We shall fly together along with the net into the skies. I have close friend who is my well-wisher. He is the king of mice. Let us go to him.”

అనుచు బలుకగ గువ్వలు యెగిరె పయికి
వలను తమతోడ తీసుకు వాసి గాను
కాల మహిమ యనుచు వేట కాడు తిరిగి
బోవ యచ్చెరువున కాకి బోయె వెనుక! 15
ఈ విధంగా రాజు పలుకగా వినిన గువ్వలన్నీ వలను తీసుకుని ఒక్కసారిగా పైకి ఎగిరి పొయ్యాయి. “కాల మహిమ” అని ఆశ్చర్య పడిన వేటకాడు, నిరాశతో వెను దిరిగి వెళ్ళగా ఏమి జరుగుతుందో చూతమని వాయసము వారిని వెంబడించెను.


Hearing what their King said all the doves in unison flew into the air carrying the net with them. “This is all mystery of time”, so thinking the hunter returned back, while the crow followed them out of curiosity.

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రాజు నుడివెను గువ్వల రాశి తోడ
రయము కూడదు పిదపట తగదు భయము
రాజనీతిలొ తంత్రము రక్ష మనకు
దూర యోచన నేర్పున దమయు శక్తి! 16
ఆ విధంగా గాలిలో ఎగురుతున్న పావురాలని చూసి రాజు ఇలా చెప్పెను. రాజతంత్రంలో, ఏ విషయములో తొందర పడ కూడదు. తొందర పడి ఆపదలో చిక్కుకున్నప్పుడు భయ పడ కూడదు. తంత్రము రాజ నీతిలో భాగము. అదే మనకు రక్ష. దూరాలోచన, కష్టాల్ని ఓర్పుగా భరించే శక్తియున్నూ !


The King further said to the doves so flying. “In Rajatantra (Rules of Governance) we should not hurry to take a decision, once we involve in trouble due to our hurry, we should not fear. That is our protection in Raja Neeti. (Ways of Governance). The basic traits must be thinking ahead of times and when in trouble to bear the pain.

ప్రభువు చూసెను బెదరెడు పరిజనమును
బేగ ఎగురుడు హితుడు కాపాడు మనను
బొండు ఉత్తర దిక్కుకు భీతి విడుడు
మంచిమిత్రు బొందితి ఈ జన్మ మూషికమ్ము! 17
ఇంకా బెదురుతున్న గువ్వలను చూసి రాజు ఇలా పలికెను. “వేగంగా ఎగిరి ఉత్తర దిక్కుకు నడవండి. నా హితుడు నన్ను కాపాడును. ఈ జన్మలో నా పుణ్యం కొద్దీ ఒక మంచి మిత్రుడిని పొందాను.


Seeing the still fearing doves, the Kind said assuring. “Hurry towards the North. There, my well-wisher, the King of Mice will rescue us. I got a very good friend in this birth, thanks to my Karma.

పావురమ్ములు ఎగిరె బలిమి తోడ
కలుగు వద్దకు దిగగను గంపెడాశ
రాజు బిలిచెను మూషిక రాజు బ్రేమ
వచ్చినాడను నీదు యవసరమునను!


గువ్వలన్నీ రెట్టించిన బలంతో ఎగిరి పొవడం మొదలు పెట్టాయి. చివరికి మూషిక రాజు నివసించే కలుగు దగ్గరకు గంపెడాశతో దిగాయి. గువ్వల్ రాజు, కలుగు లోనికి చూసి “మూషిక రాజా! నీ అవసరం పడి వచ్చను” అని పిలిచాడు.


Doves flew with all their strength and got down near the rat-hole where the King of Mice lived. The King of Doves dragged himself nearer the hole and shouted, “Oh! Friend! I came here on an urgent work with you!”

మిత్రు మాటను వినినట్టి మూషికుండు
కలుగు విడిచిచియు నేలపై కొచ్చి చూసె
ఏమి మిత్రమ నిను చూడ ఎగిరి వస్తి
నిన్ను చూడగ దుఖము నాకు కలుగు! 19


మూషిక రాజు కలుగు బయటకు వచ్చి, “ఏమి మిత్రమా! నీ మాట వినగానే ఉత్సాహము ఉరకలేసి ఉన్న పాటున వస్తినే. నీ పరిస్థితి చూస్తే ఎంతో జాలి కలుగుతుంది.”


The King of Mice rushed out of his home and said, “What? My dearest friend! Hearing your voice, I came running here. But your plight threw me into deep sorrow!


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उद्धरेत आस्माना आत्मानं न आत्मानं अवसादयेत् ।
आत्मा एव हि आत्मनः बन्धुः आत्मा एव रिपुः आत्मनः ।। श्लोक ५

Let a man raise himself by his own self; let him not debase himself. For he is himself his friend and foe.



  1. http://sanskrit.samskrutam.com/en.literature-shloka-chaanakya-neeti.ashx

e-Pragati—One small step for Andhrapreneurship

A version of this Post was published by Anil Prongs at his blog, on November 23,2015


The IT revolution has bought several changes in India. It changed what was an agriculture based economy to a country with strong service sector. It opened avenues for employment in the form of foreign based and even domestic IT/ITES companies using the extensive skill force available in India. The government has also realised the importance of IT and decided to use it for what we call it e-governance. The prime minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi has introduced “Digital India” to revolutionize e-governance and digitize Government departments. Taking an inspiration from Digital India, the government of Andhra Pradesh has introduced e-pragati, which was launched by Shri Nara Chandrababu Naidu on October 9th at Visakhapatnam.

The IT revolution is not new to the Telugu land. Mr. Naidu, when he was the chief minister of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh (Telangana and Seemandhra combined) was always a proponent of IT to bring out a sustainable development. Due to his efforts Hyderabad is a IT Hub of India after Bangalore. He introduced the e-seva service which brings all the citizen related services under one roof. Even as the Chief Minister of present Andhra Pradesh, he introduced e-cabinet, a paperless cabinet meeting which is a first of its kind in the country. A true visionary!

Coming to e-Pragati, it is one kind of e-governance which brings a revolutionary change in how services are offered, achieved, designed and consumed. It aims to integrate  government related services through a Public Private Partnership (PPP) through the use of cutting edge technologies like SOA, SMAC. This initiative intends to improve quality in various sectors like Agriculture, Education, Healthcare, Construction, Skill development, urban and rural development.


Under this there are 72 projects, made into 14 packages for ease of implementation over the next 3 years, at a cost of 2398 crore rupees. [2] “Andhra Pradesh will become the first state in the country to introduce state-wide enterprise architecture in governance with the e-Pragati project that is slated to be completed by September 2017.” [2]

What is the advantage of this project?? Well, enabling this will ensure a faster movement of files between  departments and even reducing the use of paper. There were instances where files would get stuck in one department for several days but the use of e-pragati  reduces this time consumption. E-pragati also improves the ease of doing business; now industrialists can get clearances though a single window system within a matter of days without even visiting each department. One more advantage of this e-pragati is it reduces corruption and nepotism.

To quote futurist Alvin Toffler, “The great growling engine of change – Technology”. Indeed, technology is a catalyst for change. A change which brings inclusive growth, economic prosperity and sustainable development. As far as Andhra Pradesh is concerned, this change is helping it bring out a digital revolution..One small step for Andhrapreneurship, one giant leap for Andhra Pradesh.


  1. http://e-pragati.ap.gov.in/home.html
  2. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/CM-rolls-out-e-Pragati-for-745-services-in-AP/articleshow/49308214.cms

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