Tag Archives: Telangana

Personalities: Pothana

In light of our Spotlight on the Telugu Bhagavatamu, it is only appropriate for us to spend a little time on the background of its author.

We continue our ongoing Series on Telugu Personalities with today’s post on Pothana.


Pothana Mahakavi may be famous for one thing, but he was known by many names. Also called Potaraju and later Potanamatya, he is a native of the town of the same name as his surname. Bammera Pothana was born some time in the first decade of the 1400s , in Nalgonda District of Telangana. While his exact birth year is not known, it is said that he lived between 1400 and 1475. [3] A minority school of thought has argued that his birthplace was in fact Vontimitta in Kadapa district.

Irrespective, it is known that his mother was Lakkamamba and his father was Kesana, who was of the Kaundinyasa gotra and attached to the Apastamba Dharmasutra. [1, 535] His elder brother was Tippana.

There is a beloved myth among Telugus that Pothana and Srinatha were brothers-in-law. In contrast to the spiritual and penurious Pothana, Srinatha lived an hedonistic life, and would periodically visit to poke gentle fun. Pothana is said to have always had a ready riposte to the Kavi Sarvabhauma’s gest and celebration of sensuality. However, Professor T.S.B. Narasaraju garu asserts that this tale of relation by marriage does not have any historicity to it.  Nevertheless, comparison remain apt:

Pothana was honoured in his day for his purity, integrity and independence. In this he was a striking contrast to his brother-in-law, Srinatha, who lacked the subtle sense of self-respect. Srinatha basked in the sunshine of royal favour; Potana avoided kings and courts. Srinatha knew how to turn rhyme into rupees, Potana preferred poverty with honour [2, 63]

In any event, Pothana did marry and had one son named Mallana and another son named Kesava, who was also a great litterateur. He earned the title Praudha Sarasvati, and the entire lineage itself is said to be blessed with literary prowess. [3]

As for the man himself, he is thought to not only have been a self-made man,but self-taught as well, with little or no formal schooling. To what extent he was an auto-didact was not known, given his father’s own status as a Pandit, nevertheless, it speaks volumes not only about his dedication to the divine, but to learning itself.

A yogi name Jeetananda blessed him in his younger years, and that was said to be the origin of his later intellectual awareness and talent for poesy. [2, 64]

Potana’s Bhaagavatam, a translation of the Sanskrit Mahabhaagavatam, is his magnum opus. This great work also shared, for causes unknown to us, the same fate as the Bhaaskara Raamaayana. There is a traditional story current in the country that Potana buried his Bhaagavatam underground to save it from destruction at the hands of Sarvajna Singa III, to whom Potana refused to dedicate that work [1, 536]

Unlike his contemporary, Srinatha, Pothana didn’t stoop to ninda-stuthi (praise of men). Further Sarvajna, though a cultured ruler, nevertheless remains infamous in the annals of the Telugu history for his family’s alliance with the Turkic Bahmanis and betrayal of the Musunuri Nayaks, as well as his war with the Reddi Kings.

It only goes to show that while Dharma is the foundation of our Culture, it is possible for one to be cultured and adharmic. As such, despite writing on the Bhagavata Purana, which largely focuses on the life of Sri Krishna, the dedication was to Lord Vishnu’s 7th avatar:

Potana dedicated his Bhaagavatam to god Sri Raama. He had the title sahajapaanditya, which shows that he acquired proficiency in the Telugu language and poetics by his self-effort. Potana’s poetry is mainly devotional in character. He is at his best when describing a devotional episode. He intensely felt the emotions of a devotee whom he described and went into ecstasy, while singing the glory of god Visnu. [1, 536]

But perhaps the best commentary on this Saastriya Telugu Poet is one that shows how his life influenced and was in turn reflected in his art:

In his later life when he wrote his Bhaagavatam, Potana was a bhakta practicing bhaktiyoga. He was, therefore, able to add devotional fervour to Telugu poetry. [1, 536]


Pothana is credited with authoring 4 works: The Telugu Bhagavatam, Veerabhadra-vijayam, Narayana Satakam, and the Bhogini Dandakam.

Telugu Bhagatavam is in fact longer than the original Srimad Bhagatavam of Veda Vyasa. This is because, as stated by Narasaraju garu, Pothana’s translation style was a combination of Svatantra anuvada (taking liberties with the original) and Bhava anuvada (focus on the essence rather than word for word). That is also why Pothana is so celebrated. Rather than merely repeating word for word, Vyasa’s own work, the great Poet of Telangana added his own original thought, while holding true to the spirit of the Maharishi.

Hence, his work, Bhaagavatam may be aptly termed as a devo-tional lyric. Potana had such a mastery over the language that sabdaalankaaras, like yamaka and anupraasa and others, crept into his poetical lines without effort. In spite of these sabdaalankaaras his poetry has a fine finish and an innate beauty about it, characterised by its sweetness and melody. The flow of his poetry is smooth, and his style vigorous and supple. Potana’s imagery is superb. He can make us realise the spirit conveyed in his poems intensely. He pressed the figures of speech in to service so as to make his imagery perfect…” [1, 536]

His style of Telugu was also rich in Sanskrit, making him the litterati’s delight. At the same time, the work is so popular, that large sections are famous even among the unlettered masses. Such is the impact the Telugu Bhagavatam has had on Telugu culture.

Veerabhadra Vijayam is an interesting work. According to legend, Pothana is said to have written it as atonement for writing the section of Bhagavatamu where a Rakshasa insults Lord Siva. Coming from a staunchly Saivite family, the Poet of Bammera felt the need to expiate himself for repeating the words in translation.

A third work of interest in the Narayana Satakam. The least known of the 4 credited to Pothana.

The last is in fact said to be his first, and is a work with rati as the sthayibhava, though this remains subject to much debate. There are those who argue that Pothana, like Srinatha, initially lived a more materialistic life in his youth before fully dedicating himself to traditional austerity. But it is also important to note that the orthodox do not accept this asserting that in marked contrast to Srinatha, Pothana lived according to traditional observances his whole life and did not write this text, known as Bhogini Dandakam. [1, 89]

The first work, Bhogineedandakam, furnishes the clue to settle the date of Potana. He wrote that work on a vesya of his patron Sarvajna Singa Bhoopaala. Some Telugu scholars contend that the author of this Bhogineedandakam could not have been Potana for the simple reason that, as he was a great devotee, he could not have stooped to write this work on a courtesan.” [1, 535]

Historians will have to settle the matter. For now, however, it is better to focus on the composition of his that most reflects his character and his contribution to our Culture:


The state the Telugu Bhagavatamu is found in is very much a commentary on the state of Telugu society.

decay of some of the portions—the fifth, sixth, eleventh and twelfth skandhas—which were later on comple-ted by some Telugu poets, namely, Gangana, Ercoori Singana and Veligandala Naaraya, a pupil of Potana himself. [1, 536]

Pothana was disgusted with material life, and did not publish the Telugu Bhagavatam himself. Believing the people of the time too be too engrossed in material worldliness, he felt them to be unworthy of his work. He passed it on to his other son, Mallana, instructing him to give “this Pearl of Great Price…to a pure man who had devotion in his heart.” [2, 65] Interestingly, Mallana never opened the box, and when he gave it to Veligandala Naarayya, the manuscript was found to be partly diminished by worms. The sections that were destroyed were later re-translated by Erchoori Simganna and Velingandala Narayya.

Pothana himself was later emulated by Haribhat who translated parts of the Srimad Bhagavatam in 1660. There is also the Baala-Bhagavata of Koneru Kavi, and the Devi Bhagavata translated by Dammanodara and later Srirama Pantulu and Mulugu Paapayya. [2, 65]

Pothana’s entire collection of works can be accessed here for free.

To read Bhagavatamu in Telugu, click here.

Those of you who wish to read in English can download T.S.B. Narasaraju garu’s translation of Telugu Bhagavatam’s Dasama Skandha on our article here.

Those who wish to buy book versions can go to online publishers such as these:


Click here to Buy this Book set Today!!

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Click here to Buy this Book Today!!

There is much dividing the modern states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. However, Mahakavi Pothana is, without a doubt, one of the many things uniting the Telugu people, on both sides of the Polavaram.

There was a movie in 1942 featuring Chittoor Nagaiah and Hemalatha, called Bhakta Potana.  Here is a lovely clip from it here:

The Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams (TTD) sponsored a Serial on his life, with a title by the same name.

Pothana’s work is said to be rhythmic with beauty and alliteration, so much so that it is said to be best savoured through music.

As such, we will end with a poem from the Prahalada Charitam of Srimadandhra Bhagavatam written by Bammera Potana.

Kamalakshu narchinchu karamulu karamulu

The hands that worship the Lotus-eyed One are the real hands. The tongue that speaks Srihari’s language is the True Tongue. The looks that absorb the protector of the worlds are the right and precise eyes. The head that bows to the sleeper on the snake bed is the great head. The ears that hear Vishnu, the all-pervading one, are perfect ears. The feet that guide one to the almighty are the truthful feet. The thought that revolves around Him is the noblest thought. The day that praises the Lord of Lords is the best day. The studies that reveal the wheel holder is the true learning. The teacher who tells about the master of the earth is the real teacher. The father who bids his son to reach Hari is the perfect father.” [4]


  1. Malampalli, Somasekhara Sarma.History of the Reddi Kingdoms.Delhi:Facsimile Publ. 2015
  2. Bhujanga, Chenchiah P. A History of Telugu Literature. Vol.2. London: Forgotten Books.2015
  3. Narasaraju, T.S.B. Potana. Dasama Skandha of Potana’s Telugu Bhagavatam. http://www.andhraportal.org/excerpt-dasama-skandha-ii/
  4. http://www.thehansindia.com/posts/index/2013-07-26/Pothanas-Bhagavatham-in-English-61299

Krishna Pushkaram, Nadhi Snaanam, Aacharam


Bharatha desam athi pedha punyakeshtram. 12 punya nadhulu, 4 vedalu, 108 upanishadhlu tho patishtamayina oka  jeevana sailitho koodu kuna desam.

Ye dharmam chadhivina vedham vina manaki telise modati saaramsam “pavitra tha lenidhi yedhayina  viluva lenidhe “.

Pavitra mayina manasu lekunte pooja ki viluva yela vundadho , mana chutu vuna pavitra mayina jalalu ni subramga vunchuko lekapothe vati dhaivathwam kooda manam pogottina valame avuthamu.

Hindu sampradayalo chala varaku poojalu ledha homalu chesinapudu nadhi snanam cheyatam yepati nundo vosthuna aacharam. Pavitra mayina nadhi lo snanam aacharisthe akaditho mana doshalu ledha anarogyalu pothayi ani mana sastralalo vundhi. Kaani manam a pavitra nadhulani pasuvulani subram chesukune cheruvula marusthunam. Kshaminchaali e padhajalaniki; kuni vaasthvalu nochukunelane vuntayi.

 Maaruthuna jeevanam yeno maarpulatho paatu manani inkitha vishalavidi thanaaniki kooda alavatu chesthundhi anukunta. Vastralu lekunda snanam aacharichataniki pavitra nadhulu amusement parks ledha water parks kadhu ani gurthunchukovali.

Mukyam ga magavaaru, magavadini naakenti anatu kakunda, sangam lo manatho paatu yeno kuntumbaalu,aadavaru voche pradesalo vaariki ibandhi kalagakunda vastralu vesukovali ana alochana vunchukovali.Chinapati nunde pedhavaru aadapilalaki neripinatu ga ne maga pilalalki alavatu chesthe yentho manchindhi.

Pavitra snanam ante vastralatho moodu munakalu vesi devudini darchinchuovatam. Vastram lekunda acharinche snanam thakshaka snanam ani mana grandhalo ne vundhi.

Socialize avatam ante jeevana viluvalani , gyaanani penchukovatam. Anthe kaani aacharalani marchipovatam kaadhu ani manavi.

Opikaga chaduvuthunadhuku dhanyavaddalu, asalu idhantha yendhuku meetho panchukovali anukunano chepali. Varusuga jarigina kuni sandarbhaalu nanu chala kalachivesayi:Krishna-Pushkaralu

Telavaaru jaamuna shumaru 5 gantalaki anukunta, oka roju punya snanam ki Vijayawada lo ni  Bhavani ghat ki velaga; punyam devudu yeruga leniponi rogalu vochunemo anipinchindhi. Kaaranam akada amavaruni darsinchukotaniki vochina bhaktulu inka itharulu vari kaalakruthyalu ani akade theerchukovatam. Idhe taraha lo Godavari pushakaralu ki Telangana lo ni Basara ki velamu.. akkada idhe tharaha.

Chaala ibandhi kara paristhi aadavaladhi. Magavaru kevalam oka inner tho vundatam alanti gumpu lo nundi veli snanam cheyatam anadhi jugupsa kaliginche vishayam.  Maroti Tirupathi lo angapradakshna samayam,  cheruvu lo vastralatho thadichi Swami vaari darsananiki velali. Soaps shampoo ilantivi vaada koodadhu ani petina adhe chesthunaru bhaktulu. Inka akkada manaki devudu meedha yepati bhakti vunadhi anadhi aradham kaani sandeham.

1.Dhaya chesi nadhulani subramga vunchandi
2.Magavaru  gudi ledha gudi pradasalalo ledha devudiki sambandhinchina vatilo vastralathone vundandi,  ithara kuntambalani adavaarini dhayachesi ibandhi petakandi.

Janam aacharinchakuna, government vaaru ayina kachithamayina aankshalu pedithe baguntundhi. Velapudu security ni petalekuna kanisam ilanti pushkaralu apudu.

Opikaga chadivinadhuku manspoorthi ga thanks chepthunanu. Thapulu vunte kshaminchandi.  Idhi chadivi oka 10 mandhi maarina naku anadhame. Idhi kachitham ga na okadhani avedhana matrame kadhu, yentho mandhi aadavaru dhi.. Nenu chepagaluguthunanu anthe.

Krishna pushkaralu ranunanvi ..andharu anandham ga aadavariki ibandhi kaliginchakunda anadistharu ani korukuntu mee


krishna pushkaralu

This Post was composed by ₤αναηуα. You can follow her on Twitter.

Disclaimer: This article represents the opinions of the Author, and should not be considered a reflection of the views of the Andhra Cultural Portal. The Author is responsible for ensuring the factual veracity of the content, herein.

ఆంధ్రులు ఎవరు Who are the Andhras?

ఆంధ్రులు ఎవరు? తెలుగు మరియు ఆంగ్లంలో

Continuing our Coverage of Pandit Kota Venkatachalam’s work is an excerpt of his Telugu book on The Andhras, called Andhrulu evaru? (“Who are the Andhras?”). In the previous installment on ACP, we reviewed the preface written by the famous poet Sri Viswanatha Satyanarayana for Pandit Venkatachalam‘s book “The Plot in Indian Chronology”.  We also discussed how there are many, even today, who are corrupting what our traditional texts actual said about the History of Ancient Indians and even the Identity of Andhras.

If the archaeological evidence and even texts have been tampered with by Scientism advocates, how can we scientifically arrive at the truth? That is the value of tradition. It is a one thing to take everything at face value, and it is another thing to study our tradition and then use scientific inquiry to confirm what it says. Rather than 1 or the other, both can be helpful in ensuring the Truth—the Real Truth—is determined.

Here is what an actual Pandit, learned and qualified to interpret our Vedas and Puranas, actually wrote. Sri Kota Venkatachalam’s own English translation is provided below [Emphasis and proofing ours].

The following Post was originally Published at True Indian History on June 21, 2009


 ఆంధ్రులు ఎవరు?


 సృష్ట్యాదియందు “ఆర్యజాతి” తప్ప వేరుజాతి లేదు. ఆర్యులు భారతవర్ష మంతటను వ్యాపించి నివసించియుండిన కాలములో నాయా దేశభాగములను పరిపాలించిన రాజుల పేరున ఆయా దేశములు పిలువబడినవి. అట్టి దేశములలో నివసించిన ప్రజ లాయాదేశనామములచే పిలువబడ జొచ్చిరి. అట్లు పిలువబడిన పేర్లతో వారే వేరువేరు జాతులుగా గుర్తింపబడి యుండిరి.
ఆర్యులు దేశవ్యాప్తము నొంది నివసించియుండిన పిమ్మట ఒకానొకకాలమున తూర్పుభారతవర్షము “ప్రాచ్యక దేశ” మనిపేరు గలిగి “బలి” యనెడి రాజుచే పరిపాలింపబడుచుండినది. ఆతని కుమారులా దేశమును విభాగించుకొని తమ పేర్లతో నా దేశభాగములకు పేరులుపెట్టి యేలిరి. వారిలో “ఆంధ్రరాజు” పరిపాలించిన భాగమునకు “ఆంధ్రదేశ”మని పేరు పెట్టబడినది. ఆ దేశమున నివసించుచుండిన చాతుర్వర్ణ్య ఆర్య ప్రజలు నా దేశముపేరున “ఆంధ్రులు” అని పిలువబడిరి. ఆర్యజాతియే ఆంధ్రజాతి యని పిలువబడినది. అది వేరుజాతి కాదు. ఆంధ్రుల పుట్టుపూర్వోత్తరములలో సృష్ట్యాదినుండి “ఆంధ్రు”లను పేరు వచ్చువఱకు ఆంధ్రుల చరిత్ర ఆర్యుల చరిత్రయే గాని వేఱు కాదు. అందువలన సృష్ట్యాది లగాయతు ఆంధ్రుల చరిత్ర ఆర్యుల పేరుమీదనే చెప్పబడును. దానిని ఆంధ్రుల చరిత్రగానే తీసికొనవలయునుగాని అది ఆంధ్రుల కంటె వేఱుగాగల ఆర్యుల చరిత్ర యని భ్రమించకూడదు. ‘ఆంధ్రులు’ ఆర్యులేగాని యితరులు కారు. ఒకేజాతివారు ప్రారంభములో “ఆర్యు”లనియు, కొంతకాలమునకు వారే “ఆంధ్రు”లనియు పిలువబడిరి. వారు రెండు జాతులవారు కారు. ఏకజాతీయులైయున్నారు. ఇదేప్రకారము భారతవర్షములోని వివిధ రాష్ట్రములయందు నివసించెడి ఆర్యులును ఆయా దేశనామములచే వివిధ శాఖలుగానై వివిధ జాతులుగా పరిగణింపబడుచుండిరి. కాని ఆసేతుహిమాచలముగా గల ఆర్యులందరు ఏకజాతీయులైన ఆర్యులే యైయున్నారు. ఈవిషయము మనసునందుంచు కొని ఈ గ్రంధమును (కోట వెంకటా చెలం గారి ఆంధ్రుల పుట్టుపూర్వోత్తరములు) చదివిన “ఆంధ్రుల పుట్టుపూర్వోత్తరము” లేవియో వివరముగా సృష్ట్యాదినుండియు తెలియగలవు.
ఆంధ్రుల పుట్టుపూర్వోత్తరములు
ఒక దేశముయొక్క గాని, జాతియొక్క గాని చరిత్ర వ్రాయుటకు ప్రాచీనకాలమునుండి వచ్చు చుండిన సంప్రదాయముగాని  లేక వ్రాతమూలకమైన పూర్వచరిత్రగాని ఆధారముగా నుండవలెను. అట్టిదేమియు లేక కేవలమొక మనుష్యుని యొక్క ఊహలు, కల్పనలు, నమ్మకములు, సంభావ్యతలు మొదలగువానితో వ్రాయబడినది సత్యమైన చరిత్రలు కాజాలవు. అవి కల్పనాకథ లనిపించుకొనును.
ఏదియో యొక వార్తను విని దానిని తనయూహలతోను, కల్పనలతో డను పెంచి ప్రస్తుతము తన యనుభవములో గల యొక విషయమున కదుకుపెట్టి తాను మొదట వినిన వార్త యొక్క యథార్థ చరిత్ర యిదియేయని గ్రంథములల్లి లోకములో ప్రకటించినంతమాత్రమున అది యథార్థ చరిత్ర యనిపించుకొనదు. అది చరిత్రకు ద్రోహము చేయుట యగును. ఇప్పుడు పాశ్చాత్య ప్రాచ్య చరిత్రకారులచే వ్రాయబడిన ఆధునిక భారతదేశ చరిత్రలనున్న వన్నియు వారివారి యూహా కల్పితములై యున్నవి. అందు సత్య మావంతయును కానరాదు.
మానవజాతి మధ్యా సియాయందు పుట్టి భూగోళమంతటను వ్యాపించిన దనెడి వాదము పాశ్చాత్య చరిత్రకారుల యూహాపోహలతో కల్పింపబడినది గాని దానికి పూర్వ చరిత్రాధార మేమియు లేదు. ఒక చరిత్రకారుని యూహ మరియొక చరిత్రకారుని యూహకు ప్రమాణమై తాము ముందుగా నిర్ణయించుకొనిన యొక నిర్ణయమున కనుకూలముగా నుండునట్లు పర్యవసానము తేల్చబడి లోకమున ప్రచారము చేయబడినది. చిరకాలము వినగావినగా అదియే సత్యమైన చరిత్ర యని లోకులు భ్రమించి దాని ననుసరించి చరిత్రలు వ్రాసికొనుచుండిరి. పాశ్చాత్యులచే వ్రాయబడిన అట్టి కల్పితకథలే భారతదేశ చరిత్రకాధారభూతమై తదనుసారముగా నాధునిక చరిత్రలు వ్రాయబడి మనకు పాఠాశాలలలో నేర్పబడుచున్నవి. వీనిని విసర్జించి మనము మనవాఙ్మయాదుల ననుసరించి యథర్థాచరిత్రలనువ్రాసికొనుట అత్యావశ్యకము.
ఇప్పటి సృష్ట్యాదియందు ప్రకృతినుండి స్వాభావికముగా పంచ భూతములును, అందు భూమినుండి ఓషదులును, ఓషధులనుండి సర్వ భూతకోటియు దేవమానవాదివర్గములు క్రమక్రమముగా నుద్భవించినవి. అందు మొదట వచ్చినది ప్రజాపతి. ఇతడు ప్రధమ ఆర్యుడని ఋగ్వేదము 4-26-2-2; 2-11-18 ఋక్కులయందు వినబడుచున్నది. ప్రధమ ఆర్యుడైన స్వాయంభువప్రజాపతి మానవసృష్టిని జేయబూని వసిష్టాదులైన పదిమంది ప్రజాపతులను(వీరికి దేవఋషులని పేరు) సృజించెను. పిమ్మట స్వాయంభువప్రజాపతి భూమి మీద మానవసృష్టిని జేయబూని భారతవర్షమునగల సరస్వతీ, ద్రుషద్వతీనదుల మధ్యస్థనమై భూమియందు ప్రధమమున నివసించి ‘శతరూప’ యను భార్యతో కలిసి ప్రియవ్రత, ఉత్తానపాదులనెడి ఇద్దరు కుమారులను, ఆకూతి, దేవహుతి, ప్రసూతు లనెడి ముగ్గురు కుమార్తెలను కనెను. అతడు ప్రధమమున నివసించిన భూమి “బ్రహ్మావర్త” మని పిలువబడుచున్నది.
మానవజాతి మొదట భారతదేశమునే యుత్పత్తిని బొందినది. ఇప్పుడు భారతదేశమునగల యమునానదికి పశ్చిమమున ‘సరస్వతీ’ నదియు, దానికి పశ్చిమమున ‘దృషద్వతి’ యనెడి దాని యుపనదియు నుండెడివి. ఈ సరస్వతీ, దృషద్వతి నదుల మధ్యగల ప్రదేశము ‘ బ్రహ్మవర్తమని ‘ అనాదికాలమునుండియు పిలువబడుచుండెడిది. ‘ బ్రహ్మవర్త ‘ మనగా బ్రహ్మ యను పేరుగల స్వాయంభువ ప్రజాపతి మానవజాతిని భూమి మీద నిలుపుటకు ఆదికాలమున స్థూల దేహధారియై నివసించిన స్థలము.
ప్రతిసృష్టియందును ఆదిమానవుడైన ‘ స్వాయంభువ ‘ ప్రజాపతి స్థూలదేహధారియై మానవసృష్టి నిమిత్త మెచ్చటావర్తమును బొందుచు నివసించుచుండునో అట్టి దేశము ” బ్రహ్మవర్తమని ” అనాదికాలము నుండియు దేవతలచే పిలువబడుచుండినది. ఋగ్వేదమున వినబడిన ” యోనిం దేవకృతం ” (ఋగ్వేదము 3-33-4) దేవతలచే చేయబడిన మానవజాతి జన్మస్థానము అనువాక్యమును మనువు తన మనుస్మృతి యందు ” తం దేవనిర్మితం దేశం ” (అనగా దేవతలచే ఏర్పాటు చేయబడిన ఆప్రదేశము) అనివివరించి దాని హద్దులను కూడ ఇచ్చియున్నాడు. (మను 2-17) తూర్పు – సరస్వతీ నది, దక్షిణము సరస్వతీదృషద్వతీనదుల సంగమస్థలము పడమర దృషద్వతీనది ఉత్తరము హిమాలయపర్వతములలో సరస్వతీ, దృషద్వతీనదుల జన్మస్థలముల వఱకు.
బ్రహ్మర్షి దేశము (ప్రధమవలస)
అట్టి బ్రహ్మవర్త దేశమందు పుట్టి ” ఆర్యులు ” అనబడు మానవజాతి తాము జన్మించిన ” బ్రహ్మవర్త ” దేశము వదిలి దానికి పశ్చిమమున గల ప్రదేశములందు నివసించి దానికి (మను 2-19) బ్రహ్మర్షి దేశమని పేరిడిరి. ఈ వలసలను విశేషముగా మహాతపశ్శాలులైన బ్రహ్మర్షులు నడిపి వారలే వారి శిష్యప్రశిష్యులతో అచ్చట నివసించి యుండుటవలన దానికి బ్రహ్మర్షి దేశమనెడి నామము సార్థకమైనది. ఈ ప్రదేశమున ఇటీవల కురుక్షేత్రము, మత్స్యదేశము, పాంచాలము, శూరసేనము, ఉత్తరమధుర యను పేర్లతో రాష్ట్రము లేర్పడినవి.
మధ్య దేశము (ద్వితీయవలస)
వింధ్యపర్వతము, హిమాలయపర్వతముల మధ్యయందు ప్రయాగకు ( అలహాబాదు ) పడమరగా సరస్వతీనదివరకు గల ప్రదేశమంతయు ” మధ్యదేశము” అని పిలువబడుచుండినట్లు మనువు చెప్పుచున్నడు. (మను 2-21 ) బ్రహ్మఋషిదేశము నిండిన పిమ్మట రెండవ వలసలో వెడలిన ఆర్యసంతానము ఈ మధ్యదేశమున నివసించిరి.
ఆర్యా వర్తము (తృతీయ వలస)
అటుపిమ్మట ఆర్యజాతీయులు మహర్షుల యనుజ్ఞవలన వారి రాజుల నాయకత్వమున మూడవ వలసగా బయలుదేరి వింధ్యహిమాచలములకు మధ్యనుండు ఖాళీప్రదేశ మందంతటను వ్యాపించి స్థిర నివాసము లేర్పరచుకొనిరి. ఆనాటికి భూగోళమంతయు నిర్మానుష్యముగా నుండి యున్నది. భారతవర్షములో గూడ నిప్పుడు మనవిచారణ యందుండిన ఆర్యజాతీయులు తప్ప యితరమానవు లెవ్వరును లేరు.
నాల్గవ, ఐదవ వలసలు
అటుపిమ్మట విదేహమాధవు డనెడి రాజు తన గురుదేవుడైన గౌతమరహూగణుని ప్రేరణమున నానాటికి వృధ్ధినిగాంచుచుండిన ఆర్యజాతీయుల వెంట నిడికొని బ్రహ్మవర్తాది ప్రదేశములనుండి యొక గొప్ప వలసను బయలుదేరదీసి సరస్వతీనదికి తూర్పుగా గంగానదివఱకు బోయి అచ్చటచ్చట ఆర్యనివాసములు నేర్పాటుచేసి యుండిరి కాని అచ్చట ” సదానీరా ” అనెడి యొక నది అడ్డమురాగా ఆవలస నంతటితో నిలిపి అంతవఱకు వచ్చిన పొడుగునను, గ్రామముల, పట్టణముల నిర్మానమొనర్చిరి. సదానీరా నదికావల ప్రదేశము నివాసయోగ్యము కానందున దానిని నివాసయోగ్యముగా చేయుటకు తగిన యేర్పాట్లు చేసి తిరిగి పశ్చిమముగా వెళ్లి గంగా, యమునా, సరస్వతీ, దృషద్వతీ నదులను దాటి ఉపనదులతో గూడిన సింధునదిని దాటి పశ్చిమమున సింధునది కుపనది యగు ‘ కుభా ‘ (అనగా కాబూలు నది ) నదీతీరముల వఱకు తమ వలసలను విస్తరింప జేశి యుండిరి. ఈ వివరములను ఋగ్వేదము, శతపధబ్రాహ్మణము, మనుస్మ్రుతి మొదలగు వానియందు సవిస్తరముగా వివరింపబడి యున్నది.
“ఆర్యాః అత్ర ఆవర్తంతే పునః పున రుద్భవంతి ఇతి ఆర్యావర్తః “. ఆర్యులు లెచ్చట పుట్టి, పెరిగి, చచ్చి, తిరిగి పుట్టుచుందురో అది ఆర్యావర్తమని చెప్పబడుచున్నది. దీనిని బట్టి ఆర్యులు ఈ ప్రదేశముమందుననే సృష్టి ప్రారంభమునుండి పుట్టి నివసించుచుండిరని మనుస్మ్రుతి యందు స్పష్టము చేయబడినది. ( పాశ్చాత్యులూహించినటుల ఆర్యులు మధ్యాసియా యందు పుట్టి భారతవర్షమునకు వలస వచ్చినరుట కేవలము వారి కల్పనయే కాని పూర్వ చరిత్ర వలన ధ్రువ పరచబడినది కాదు )
దక్షిణా పధము ( ఆఱవ వలస )
అటుపిమ్మట ఆర్యుల దృష్టి వింధ్యపర్వతములకు దక్షిణముగా గల ప్రదేశములమీదకు ప్రసరించినది. ఆనాడు దక్షిణదేశమంతయు నిర్మానుష్యముగా నుండినది. ఆర్యులు ‘ సదా నీరా ‘ ప్రాంతప్రదేశము నంతను మానవ నివాసమున కనుకూలముగా నొనర్చి పిమ్మట తూర్పున గల వంగదేశప్రాంతములమీదుగా దక్షిణమునకు క్రమక్రమముగా వ్యాపించిరి. అనేక సంవత్సరములు గడచుచుండగా అట్లు ఆర్యులు వ్యాపించిన భారతవర్షపు తూర్పుదక్షిణములగల ( అనగా ఇప్పటి మద్రాసు దిగువ వఱకు ) ప్రదేశము ” ప్రాచ్యక దేశ ” మని పిలువబడినది. దానికి దక్షిణముగా దక్షిణసముద్రమువఱకు గల దేశము దక్షిణ దేశమయ్యెను. ఆరెంటికి పశ్చిమముగా గల పశ్చిమకొస్తా ప్రదేశము పశ్చిమదేశమయ్యెను. అదే విధమున ఆర్యులు ” దక్షిణాపధ ” మంతయునాక్రమించి వృధ్ధిపొందిరి. ఆసేతుహిమాచలముగా గల దేశమునంతను ఆక్రమించిన ఆర్యులు వైదిక ధర్మావలంబులై చాతుర్వర్ణ్య వ్యవస్థ గలిగి యుండిరి.


Who Are the Andhras?


Chapter IV
Origin and early History of the Andhras [2]

In the beginning, there was only one race, the Aaryan race. In the ancient times, when the Aaryans were spreading all over the continent of Bharat, the different regions and parts were named after the Kings that ruled over them. The people too were named by the names of these regions and came to be considered different races.

In those remote times in Eastern Bharat was known as ‘Praachyaka Desa’ and ruled by a king named Bali. After his death, several of his sons divided his kingdom, and each named his part after himself, one of them being Aandhra. The kingdom of prince Aandhra being known as Aandhra Desa and the Aaryans (of the four castes) inhabiting the region were called Aandhras.  Thus only one group or division of the Aaryans came to be known as Aandhras. The Aandhras were not a separate race from the Aaryans. Hence the history of the Aandhras till the emergence of the Aandhra race (the name) coincides with the history of the larger race named Aaryan. The history of the Aaryans is the history of the Aandhras and vice versa. Aandhras are Aaryans and none else. It is all one race known as Aaryans in the beginning, some of them later coming to be known as Aandhras from the name of the region inhabited by them. It is the same case with the Aaryans inhabiting the other different parts of Bharat, all of them of the same Aaryan stock but developing into various branches and coming to be considered different peoples and named after the different regions occupied by them. But all of the Aaryans of Bharat from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin [Kanyakumari] belong to the same racial (Aaryan) stock. This axiom should be kept steadily in mind in the study of the history of the Aandhras from the beginning of creation, attempted in this volume.

The Process of Creation

In the beginning the five elements evolved naturally [f]rom primordial nature or Prakriti, and from earth, of the five, living matter and living beings of all kinds. The first among the living creatures was Prajapathi. He is the first Aaryan. Rigveda 4 26 2-2, 2-11-18. He resolved on the creation of the human race and first created the ten Praja-pathis (the Devarishis). Then he  himself residing in the region enclosed by the rivers Saraswati and Drishadvati, and cohabiting with his wife Sataruupa gave birth to two sons ‘sons Priyavrata and Utaana paada and three daughters Aakuuti, Devahuuti and Prasuuti. The region he first lived in came to be known as “Brahmavarta”. The human race first appeared in Bharat only. To the west of the present Jamuna in North India there flowed in ancient times Sara-swati and to its west a tributary by name of Dru-shadvati. The region between these rivers Saraswati and Dri-shadvati was known as ‘Brahmavarta’ from time immmo-rial [immemorial]. The name indicates that the Swayambhuva Prajapati named Brahma resided there in gross physical form to cre-ate the human race on the earth.

At the beginning of every cycle of creation, this place where Swayambhuva Prajapati, the first man resides on the earth in his gross physical body, to create the human race is known as Brahmavartam’. In Rigveda-3-33-4 we hear ‘Yonim Deva Kritam’ and ‘Tam Deva Nirmitam Desam’ in Manu 2-17. This region is bound by the river Sara-swati on the east the junction of Sarasvati and Drushad-vati on the South Drishadvati on the West and the Hima-layas on the North.


The First MigrationBrahmarshi Desa.

The Aaryans thus born in Brahmavarta left the place of their origin and inhabiting the region to the west of it gave it the name ‘Brahmarshi Desa’ (Manu 2-19). These migrations and colonisations were led by Brahmarshis of established spiritual eminence who settled down in the new regions with their disciples and hence it was called ‘Brahmarshi Desa.’In later times this region came to comprise the kingdoms of Kuru, Matsya, Panchala, Surasena & Uttara Madhura.

The Second MigrationMadhya Desa.

According to Manu, the region bounded by the Vindhyas in the South the Himalayas in the north, Allahabad [Prayag] in the east and the river Saraswathi in the West, was called Madhya Desa. (Manu 2-21). This was the region colonised by the second migration of Aaryans after the Brahmarishi Desa was fully occupied.

Aryavarta (The Third Migration)

Thereafter the Aryans, on the advice of the sages and under the leadership of the kings, started on the third migration and spread all over the plains between the Hima-layas and the Vindhyas and settled down in permanent homelands. At that time almost  all the surface of the earth was uninhabited and even in Bharat there were no people  other than the Aryans.

Fourth and Fifth Migrations.

Thereafter, a king by name of Videha Madhava, on the advice of his teacher Gautama Rahuguna, accompanied by the Aaryans who were rapidly increasing in numbers, orga-nised a great migration from the Brahmavarta and neigh-bouring regions and proceeded “to the east of Saraswati upto the river Ganges and established Aaryans settlements at several places. But confronted by the river Sadanira, the progress was halted and villages and towns were constructed all along the march up to the river Kubha or Kabul, and extended their settlements so far. These details of the migration are available  in the Satapatha Brahmana, the Rigveda and in the Manu Smriti

The land in which the Aaryans are born, grow and die  and are  born again is known as ‘Aaryavarta’. Thus it is clear the Aaryans were living in this region from the beginning of creation, according to the Manu Smriti.

The sixth migration “Dakshinapatha”

Then the Aaryans cast their eyes on the region to the south of the Vindhyas. In those days this part of the country was uninhabited. After rendering habitable and fit for colonisation, the neighbourhood of the river Sadanira and proceeding through the regions to the east of it, Viz. Vanga, etc, they spread to the south along the coast. The south eastern coast lands of Bharat, which were thus occupied by the Aaryans gradually  down to modern Madras and below, were then known as ‘Prachyaka Desa’ and this region beyond further south to the sea ‘Dakshina Desa’ and the west coast and adjoining tracts ‘Paschima Desa’. Thus the Aaryans spread in course of time over the whole of the Southern peninsula and the Aryans who came  to occupy the whole of Bharat from the Himalayas in the north to the Indian ocean in the south were the followers of the Vedic culture and the social order of the fourfold division of society) which formed an integral part of it.



  1. “ఆంధ్రులు”. True Indian History. June 19, 2009
  2. Kota, Venkatachalam Paakayaaji (Pandit). Chronology of Ancient Hindu History Part I. Vijayawada: AVG.  p.121-124

Crafts: Cheriyala Paintings


From the world of High Culture and refined Dance, we move on to the land of popular and provincial culture. Along with the Marga, we celebrate the Desi (pun intended)to connect with our roots.

Continuing our Series on Arts & Crafts , is the native ancient style of scroll painting in young Telangana State: Cheriyala.



Originating in and concentrated around the village of Cheriyala in Warangal District, this craft grew in the heart of modern Telangana state. The rural agglomeration is located 93 kms outside the main city of the District, and is accessible by road or train.


At present, the dating for the technique and style is uncertain. What is known is that it is at least 500 years old (but very possibly much older). In fact…

Scroll painting is one of the ancient expressions in Telangana and dates back to Kakatiya dynasty. The genre of this painting displays the traces of the Kakatiya style of painting, seen in the 12th century wall paintings of Pillalamarri temple and hill temple of Tripurantakam. [8]

In the Pratapa Charitram, Ekamranatha notes that there were 1500 painters around Warangal.

Of late, appropriation of the traditional arts and culture of the region is being conducted by those who seem to think all things of value came from foreigners, including Cheriyala. That is the importance of this genre of painting being associated with the Kakatiyas whose rule began almost 1000 years ago (ante-dating the estimate of 500 years).

Techniques and styles and even methods may actually descend from the ancient Indic style of Pattachitra, which is still practiced in Odisha today, and was renamed as Kalamkari in the Telugu states, during the medieval period. The names may be new: Mahboobabad for Palamooru, Nizamabad for Induru,  Bhongir for Bhuvanagiri, and Kalamkari for Pattachitra, but the origins are native, as was the original fort of Gollakonda. Like Madhubhani of Bihar, and the popular art of Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, these styles represent the desi  (provincial) traditions and approaches to art that date back millennia.

Historically, these painted scrolls of Cheriyala were shown to audience members while ministrels sung the genealogies of 7 local communities/castes. These were as follows: “Jaamba puraanam is performed for Maadigas by Dakkali sub caste; the Bhaavanaa Rishi and Markandeeya puraanam is performed for Padmasaalis by Kuunapuli sub caste; the madeel puraanam is shown for chakalivaallu by patamvaaru sub caste; the Gauda puraanam is performed for Gauds by Gaudajetti caste; Paandavula Katha is performed for Mudiraajs by Kaakipadagala sub caste; Addam puranam is for Mangalivaallu by addam varu; Kaatama Raju Katha is performed for Gollavallu by Mandechchuloollu. Instead of scrolls, performers in this Kaatamaraju performance use 53 dolls made by Nakashi artists“. [8]

As such, scenes from the Puranas are commonly ceremonialised in this rustic style of popular artwork. Similar, vibrantly coloured paintings can be found in Telangana’s interior (i.e. countryside Temples) even today.

Cherial paintings or scroll paintings are used by a community known as ‘kaki padagollu’ that uses this medium as a visual aid to narrate stories from Ramayana and Mahabharata. [9]


Doo doo Basavanna

There are in fact two crafts associated with Cheriyala. The first is the more famous scroll paintings. The second are wooden dolls and masks.

Despite being scroll paintings made of traditional materials, each one is said to last for over 150 years.


The main attraction of cheriyala scroll paintings is that it is made from all natural materials, and therefore, good for the environment (as well as the heritage workers depending on the craft). The colours are very striking, and are made from water-based and earth-based ingredients.

The powder of a stone called ‘inglikum’ elevates the background in bright red colour, pevudi yellow shades, unique ‘zink white’ is used to depict pearl like ornamentations and the thick Indigo blue colours are used across the paintings making these picturesque frames theatrical representations of life. [8]

Due to the speed at which they can be created, the Cheriyala Scroll painting is a traditional Storyteller’s dream, and is used for that purpose.


The canvas is made from  khadi cloth. On this, coating consisting of “a mixture of tamarind seed powder, white clay, and rice starch is applied thrice to make it stiff“. [4]

After the first coating dries, a second one is added. Gum water is also used.

Brushes made from squirrel hair are used to paint the subject proper. This results in very precise outlining that enhances the vibrancy and redolence of the artwork.


As for the wooden articles, the bommas (dolls) and masks are made from sawdust, tamarind and timber. Coconut shells are also used. Similar coating is then applied.


Despite the ancient history of this lovely pastoral paintings, the future is not as a bright as it should be. Although a Geographical Indicator was given to Cheriyala in 2007, the passing on of its legacy remains uncertain. To maintain an age-old art takes not only time and dedication but also patronage and popularisation. Along with traditional technique, modern marketing methods may be needed to create a demand for such supply and maintain livelihoods for such committed artisans.

Please give your patronage to these wonderful artists who preserve an integral folk tradition. We have showcased artwork from the artist run sites, who can be reached here.

It is not enough to demand government action in everything. Civil society and the people at large must back up talk with action and support the livelihood of these bearers of tradition, with whatever little they can afford to spend.


Click here and buy today!

Depicting one scene in the small scrolls cost about Rs. 500, but the price increases with greater intricacy. For storytellers, the price is quoted per metre of work.“[4]

For a small investment, the livelihood of the traditional preservers of an organic art can be secured. Stories are told not only by cinema or podcast, but by the arts and the crafts. The heritage of a people is based not only in museums and art galleries, but also in the villages and huts of rural India. It is here that the beating heart of the people and their popular culture is protected and passed on for the next generation.


  1. http://www.craftscouncilofindia.org/craft-process/hand-painting/
  2. http://cheriyalpaintings.blogspot.com/2016_01_01_archive.html
  3. http://www.thehindu.com/arts/crafts/scrolls-of-stories/article4098074.ece
  4. http://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/art/curator-of-a-tradition/article5138515.ece
  5. http://www.warangalonline.in/city-guide/cheriyal-scroll-paintings
  6. http://www.thehindu.com/thehindu/mp/2004/05/20/stories/2004052001190300.htm
  7. http://cheriyalpaintings.blogspot.com/2014_07_01_archive.html
  8. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-fridayreview/cheriyal-the-pride-of-telangana/article6596306.ece
  9. http://lepakshihandicrafts.gov.in/cherialscrollpainting.html#

Personalities: Nataraja Ramakrishna


The word ‘Natya’ in the Two Telugus states today cannot be uttered without mentioning the name Nataraja Ramakrishna.

The reviver of Andhranatyam and Perini Siva Thandava, he was a virtuoso in three others, including the third native Telugu dance, Kuchipudi.  A scholar, skilled singer and dancer, and inspiration for cultural revival, he is the next of the great Andhra Personalities in our series.



The recreator of not one, but two dances, and with parents from both Telangana and modern Andhra Pradesh, Nataraja Ramakrishna’s story begins not in either of the two Telugu states, or even India, but Indonesia.

Born on the island of Bali (the last Hindu outpost in the  archipelago), the nrtta (rhthym) of Ramakrishna gaaru’s life was poetic even in this respect.  He was a dance maestro whose birth took place in one of Bharatavarsha’s ancient daughter cultures, who absorbed our Samskruthi and even invited brahmanas to settle  to spread the Dharma. How appropriate that a reviver of our culture hailed from an ancient absorber of our culture?

He would go on to revive not only Perini but Andhra Natyam as well. Fittingly, his mother (Damayanti Devi) was from Nalgonda district in Telangana and his father (Ramamohan Rao) was from East Godavari in Andhra Pradesh–a Telugu unity story if there ever was one. Nevertheless, he spent most of his life in Telangana, and very much represents the new state’s contribution to our common heritage.

He was interested in classical dance from childhood itself. Leaving his family, who did not approve of his passion, Ramakrishna went to Ramakrishna Math in Madras (now Chennai).

He was a student of Kuchipudi and Bharatanatyam, and studied under Smt. Naidupeta Rajamma and Pendyala Satyabhama and learned from Natyacharya Vedantam Lakshminarayana Sastri, the famous Kuchipudi exponent who opened the dance style up for women. Starting from 1971, Ramakrishna gaaru closely reviewed not only historical texts such as the treatise Nritta Ratnavali, but also the dance poses of the famous statues of the Ramappa Temple just outside of Warangal.

At 18, he later performed at the Nagpur Royal court where the moniker “Nataraja” was affixed to his name, Ramakrishna. The newly minted ‘lord of the dance’ had studied under Sukhdev Karthak. The Maratha king of Nagpur was a great patron of his, and Ramakrishna gaaru became a scholar of the sastras and a linguist in 5 bhashas.

A life-long bachelor, his was a life dedicated to the humanities. He sought to infuse new life not only in long dormant danceforms, but to revive the spirit of Telugu Thanam in our traditional artforms.dance.

For him, dance is his life partner; disciples are his children while his inheritance is his knowledge of art of dance. [2]



After decades of dedication, he was able to first write commentaries on the style before instructing students, ultimately nurturing the return of the great warrior dance: Perini.  [3] An exponent of Kuchipudi, intructor of Bharatanatyam, progenitor of Andhra Natyam, and reconstructor of Telangana’s Siva Thandava, he truly was a jewel of the Telugus.

Aside from his most famous contributions, he had a life full of achievement.

He has revived ‘Navajanardanam’, a great Prabandha dance tradition that was performed in Kunthi Madhava Temple at Pithapuram in the East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Dr. Nataraja Ramakrishna choreographed and staged “Sri Venkateswara Kalyanam”, “Kumara Sambhavam” and “Megha Sandesam”. [2]

  • Established Nrityaniketan in Hyderabad in 1955 for dance instruction
  • Wrote over 40 books on dance traditions of Andhra Pradesh and ancient dance forms.
  • Revived ancient spiritual dances of Agama Narthanams & Navajanardhana Parijatam
  • Helped propagate Telangana’s folk dance Chindu Yakshaganam
  • Repopularised the folk dance of Srikakulam and Vizianagaram: Tapettagallu
  • Repopularised Veera Natyam and Garagalu of East & West Godavari districts
  • Chairman of Andhra Pradesh Sangeet Natak Akademi
  • Awarded doctorate from Andhra University
  • Received Bharat Kala Prapoorna
  • Received NTR State Award under united Andhra Pradesh state
  • Awarded Padma Sri in 1992


At a time of division among the sons of Telugu Thalli, Nataraja Ramakrishna gaaru is a story of unity. If he restored the great Warangal tradition of Thandava to Telangana, he reforged the ancient 2,000 year old classical dance style of the Andhras as a gift to a then united Andhra Pradesh. If returning Andhra Natya alone makes him an Andhra Ratna, then recreating Perini Thandava makes him a Bharata Ratna.

An Acharya of Andhranatyam, Perini, and Kuchupudi, a virtuoso in Bharatanatyam and a patron of Odissi, he was the complete narthaki, and one of the most respected dance teachers in our tradition. Not just a dancer or instructor, he was a true scholar. Even here he distinguished himself. Unlike our rote reciting “Arm-chair Acharyas”, he did extensive field research as well, going on expedition to Warangal and the Ramappa Temple.

Prominent disciples include Uma Rama Rao, Kala Krishna, Alekhya Punjala, Perini Venkat, and Odissi dancer Aruna Mohanty.


A selfless encourager and guide of young artistes, he is the first to write and compose a Nrutya Nataka (dance ballet) on Lord Venkateshvara. For this reason his called the exemplar of Satvikabhinaya–the soul of Indian dance. As a riposte to Ivy Tower indologists, he not only gave new life to classical dance, but ritual, folk, and even tribal dance as well. Such was the breadth of his scholarly patronage and love for dance as artform.

He passed away in 2011 at the age of 88, but his legacy lives with us today and will live on for 1000 years. He is described as a Kuchipudi legend, a recreator of Perini, and a restorer of Andhranatyam. It is as though he blessed each state with a dance tradition, and gave one more for Telugu unity. Each brother may have a house (and a danceform!), but Telugu Thalli is our common mother, common culture, and common heritage.

That is the message of the life of Padma Sri Nataraja Ramakrishna.


  1. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/article2084870.ece?homepage=true
  2. http://andhranatyam.com/gurudeva.htm
  3. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/girija-devi-nataraja-ramakrishna-sangeet-natak-akademi-fellows/article1106137.ece
  4. http://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/book/andhranatyam-lasya-dance-tradition-of-andhras-rare-book-NAJ098/
  5. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-fridayreview/art-form-comes-alive/article6987493.ece
  6. http://www.narthaki.com/info/profiles/profl125.html